Protamine sulfate downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and inhibits VEGF and its receptor binding in vitro.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate protamine sulfate inhibition of expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-VEGFR binding in vitro and to find a new drug that inhibits neovascularization, which can potentially be used to treat angiogenic eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS Monkey… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1399-9_39

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