The safety of dental amalgam and alternative dental restoration materials for patients and users.
Prosthodontic biomaterials include impression materials, luting cements, and restorative materials. They consist of metals and alloys ceramics, and polymer materials and are retained in patients for <60 min or for decades. Oral release of compounds from biomaterials occurs, and adverse reactions may follow dental treatment. Especially in allergically vulnerable patients contact allergy may occur. There are reports from many different countries on contact allergy from gold/palladium alloys, components from polymer-based materials, chromium/cobalt alloys, and nickel. Notifications on adverse reactions in Norway, Sweden, and England are handled by a registry in which patient reactions and occupational exposure are recorded. Data from The Adverse Reaction Unit in Bergen and Umeå have been a most valuable basis in extending knowledge in a field of current interest in dentistry. A review of the clinical and research literature relating to prosthodontic biomaterials and adverse reactions shows that reliable methods seem necessary to expose the frequency of adverse reactions in general dentistry, including prosthodontic treatment.