Good models for the investigation of human prostate cancer are few. Cells from approximately 9.2-21 ml of peripheral blood from patients with metastatic prostate cancer or metastatic colon cancer were injected s.c. into nude mice. Prostate cancer from 2 of 11 patients and colon cancer from 1 of 3 patients were found to be growing as metastases in the lungs of the nude mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the formation of xenografts from carcinoma cells taken directly from the peripheral blood of patients. Expanding circulating cancer cells with this approach may have important translational applications including: (a) development of models of human cancers; and (b) sampling of cancers from specific patients for novel molecular and therapeutic approaches.