High incidence of prostate cancer detected by saturation biopsy after previous negative biopsy series.
Ng Kent Hoo, Muhammad Akmal Ayob, Maheza Irna Mohamad Salim, Christina Pahl, Heamn Noori Abduljabbar, Eko Supriyanto Abstract—Prostate volume measurement is frequently used to diagnose the abnormalities of the prostate. Abnormal enlargement of the prostate may due to inflammation or virus infection. In a more severe case, the abnormal enlargement may indicate prostate cancer. So far, prostate abnormalities detection is best carried out by using ultrasonography due to its rapid measurement and good sensitivity. In clinical setting, there are several ways of conducting prostate ultrasonography including transperineal, transrectal and transabdominal. Transperineal and transrectal scanning offer a higher sensitivity imaging than the transabdominal route. However, reproducibility of the image is very low since both methods are operator dependant. Therefore, this study proposes the use of transabdominal scanning in the measurement of prostatic volume of 10 healthy multiethnic Malaysian populations. The objective of this study is to find the relationship between body weight, height, body mass index and ethnicity to prostatic volume of Malaysian population. Previous researches on prostate volume measurements only focused on subjects’ ages. However, that is not the only factor that affects the volume of prostate, as parameters like body weight, height, body mass index and ethnicity may contribute a lot in the differences of prostate volume. During the study, all subjects are requested to fully fill their urinary bladder to obtain clear prostatic gland images. The recorded digital image was further processed in Matlab for segmentation of the prostate area. Finally, prostate volume measurement was conducted by using the ellipsoid formula which calculates volume by considering the largest anteroposterior height (H), transverse width (W), cephalocaudal length (L) and diameters. The findings show that prostate volume increases linearly with body weight and height of a person and almost linearly with BMI. In Ng Kent Hoo is currently a research officer in Diagnostic Research Group, Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (e-mail: anges_2405@ hotmail.com). Muhammad Akmal Ayob is currently a final year undergraduate student of Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (email@example.com) Maheza Irna Mohamad Salim is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) Christina Pahl is currently PhD student at Ilmenau University of Technology and Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (e-mail: email@example.com). Haemn Noori Jabbari is currently a sonographer and Master student at Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Eko Supriyanto is currently a professor in Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (email: email@example.com) addition to that, ethnicity comparison shows that Chinese ethnic has the highest prostate volume followed by Indian and finally malay ethnic. Keywords— Prostate volume, height, weight, body mass index, ethnicity