Prostaglandin D Synthase (β-Trace) in Human Arachnoid and Meningioma Cells: Roles as a Cell Marker or in Cerebrospinal Fluid Absorption, Tumorigenesis, and Calcification Process

@article{Yamashima1997ProstaglandinDS,
  title={Prostaglandin D Synthase ($\beta$-Trace) in Human Arachnoid and Meningioma Cells: Roles as a Cell Marker or in Cerebrospinal Fluid Absorption, Tumorigenesis, and Calcification Process},
  author={Tetsumori Yamashima and Kazushige Sakuda and Yasuo Tohma and Junkoh Yamashita and Hiroshi Oda and Daisuke Irikura and Naomi Eguchi and Carsten Theodor Beuckmann and Yoshihide Kanaoka and Yoshihiro Urade and Osamu Hayaishi},
  journal={The Journal of Neuroscience},
  year={1997},
  volume={17},
  pages={2376 - 2382}
}
Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) is an enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of prostaglandin D2 in the CNS and is identical to a major cerebrospinal fluid protein, β-trace. Although PGDS has been identified recently in rat leptomeninges, little information is available about human meninges or meningiomas. Here, we report PGDS to be expressed consistently in 10 human arachnoid and arachnoid villi and in 21 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse… 
Prostaglandin D Synthase (β-Trace) in Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma
TLDR
Findings suggest that meningeal HPCs may have a unique molecular phenotype that is distinct from that of the soft-tissue HPSs, and may be more closely related to the arachnoid cells.
Cellular localization of lipocalin‐type prostaglandin D synthase (β‐trace) in the central nervous system of the adult rat
TLDR
The localization of lipocalin‐type prostaglandin D synthase in meningeal cells and its colocalization with COX‐2 provide evidence for its function as a prostaglandsin D2‐producing enzyme.
Localization of lipocaline-type prostaglandin D synthase in rat brain: immunoelectron microscopic study
TLDR
The distribution of lipocaline-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) in rat brain was investigated by immunoelectron microscopy using a protein A-gold technique and suggests that the perivascular cells secrete L-PG DS and seem not to degrade lipophilic molecules carried by L- PGDS.
Expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in human heart and its accumulation in the coronary circulation of angina patients.
TLDR
It is suggested that L-PGDS is present in both endocardium and myocardium of normal subjects and the stenotic site of patients with stable angina and is secreted into the coronary circulation.
Prostaglandin D synthase: structure and function.
TLDR
Two distinct types of PGD synthase are purified; one is the lipocalin-type enzyme and the other is the hematopoietic enzyme, which acts as a PGD2-producing enzyme and also as a lipophilic ligand-binding protein, with high affinities.
Lipocalin-type Prostaglandin D Synthase (β-Trace) Is a Newly Recognized Type of Retinoid Transporter*
TLDR
It is likely that this enzyme is a bifunctional protein that acts as both retinoid transporter and prostaglandin D2-producing enzyme, with affinities sufficient for function as a retinoids transporter.
Acute and transient increase of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (β-trace) level in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
TLDR
The results suggest that the transient and delayed increase in the PGDS level in CSF is due to its induction of PGDS in the arachnoid membrane after SAH.
Prostaglandin D Synthase Isoforms from Cerebrospinal Fluid Vary with Brain Pathology
TLDR
It is concluded that qualitative and quantitative fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid PTGDS isoforms reflect both major and subtle brain pathophysiology.
Biochemical, structural, genetic, physiological, and pathophysiological features of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase.
TLDR
X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that PGDS possesses a beta-barrel structure with a hydrophobic pocket in which an active thiol, Cys(65), the active center for the catalytic reaction, was located facing to the inside of the pocket.
Identification of a progenitor cell of origin capable of generating diverse meningioma histological subtypes
TLDR
The cell of origin for these common brain tumours as well as a susceptible developmental period in which signature genetic mutations culminate in meningioma formation are established.
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TLDR
This enzyme’s activity in adult rat retina was enriched sixfold in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and even more in interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM), all higher than brain, suggesting it may perform an additional, unrelated role in IPM.
Dominant expression of mRNA for prostaglandin D synthase in leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the adult rat brain.
TLDR
Prostaglandin D synthase is mainly synthesized and located in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes in the brain, and the findings agree with those obtained by immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against the enzyme.
Neuronal and glial prostaglandin D synthase isozymes in chick dorsal root ganglia: a light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study
TLDR
Results demonstrate that PGD2 formation in DRG is regulated by two isozymes: the GSH-requiring isozyme located in satellite and Schwann cells and theGSH-independent isozyme-confined to small B1 neurons.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Prostaglandin D synthetase in the brain of 2- and 8-week-old rats was biochemically indistinguishable and the cellular localization of the enzyme was markedly different between the two ages, as examined by immunoperoxidase staining with the specific antibodies.
Purification and Chemical Characterization of β‐Trace Protein from Human Cerebrospinal Fluid: Its Identification as Prostaglandin D Synthase
TLDR
Carohydrate compositional as well as methylation analysis indicated that Asn29and Asn56 bear exclusively complex‐type oligosaccharide structures that are almost quantitatively α1‐6 fucosylated at the proximal N‐acetylglucosamine; ∼70% of these molecules contain a bisecting N‐ acetylglUCosamine.
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When the amounts of primary prostaglandins formed from endogenous arachidonic acid were determined in homogenates of various tissues of adult rats, prostaglandin D2 was the major prostaglandin found
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TLDR
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