Most of the data accumulated to date on the immunoregulatory effects of prostaglandins (PG) on T cell activation stem from the archetypal inhibitory effect of PGE(2). In this study we provide instead, the first evidence that exogenous PGB(2), a catabolic metabolite of PGE(2), synergizes with signals delivered by T cell receptor (TCR) engagement to induce interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha-expression in Jurkat cells. Accordingly, PGB(2) enhances the proliferation of anti-CD3-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In terms of cellular signaling, we present evidence that PGB(2) activates tyrosine kinase activities and efficiently increases c-fos mRNA expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) translocation to the nucleus. Owing to these features, PGB(2) appears as a new lipid mediator capable of delivering an ancillary signal leading to T lymphocyte activation.