Prospects for the Future

  title={Prospects for the Future},
  author={Robert C Gallo and Luc Montagnier},
  pages={1730 - 1731}
With close to 70 million people worldwide already infected with HIV and more than 20 million dead, AIDS has exacted and is continuing to exact a cruel toll on humanity. In the last of the four Viewpoints, Gallo and Montagnier look at the future prospects for controlling and eradicating AIDS worldwide. 

In search of a treatment for HIV--current therapies and the role of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).

This review gives an overview of the disease and addresses the drugs currently used for treatment, with specific emphasis on new developments within the class of allosteric non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).

HIV postexposure prophylaxis in the 21st century.

The current state of knowledge in this field is described, substantive questions to be answered are identified, and basic principles of postexposure management are summarized.

Reproductive Assistance in HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Where the Woman Is Positive

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an RNA virus discovered at the beginning of the 1980s with a replicative cycle that can be divided into two phases: in the first phase the virus enters the cells, copies its RNA into a double-stranded DNA, and integrates this newly copied genome into the host cell.

Cytopathic Mechanisms of HIV-1

Information is gathered on TM in an attempt to shed some light on the functional regions of this protein, which is not well understood and is fiercely debated.

Xenotransplantation: Current Status in Preclinical Research

Current understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in xenograft rejection, genetically modified pigs used for xenotransplantation, and progress that has been made in developing pig-to-pig- to-non-human primate models are focused on.

Evaluation of Reverse Transcriptase Assay for Viral Load Monitoring

The RT assay documented in this thesis should be considered as a viable alternative for viral load monitoring, particularly in regions where expensive and complex gene-based technologies are not a viable option.

Mitochondrial functionalism in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy

The main hypothesis of the present Thesis was to demonstrate that mitochondrial abnormalities are present in HIV-infected pediatric patients treated with ARV, and to elucidate whether ARV treatment or HIV infection were exerting a mitochondrial toxic effect in asymptomatic perinatally HIV- infected pediatric patients receiving HAART.

Multidrug, Anti-HIV Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Nature and Mechanisms of Impacts of Drugs on Each Other's Solution Concentrations.

It is demonstrated that these effects have to do primarily with solution phase interactions between the anti-HIV drugs, rather than from the drugs influencing each other's release rate, and it is suggested that such observations may indicate an important, previously inadequately recognized, and general phenomenon for ASDs containing multiple hydrophobic drugs.



HIV–1 neutralizing antibodies: How full is the bottle?

Potent neutralizing antibodies protect monkeys from SHIV challenge, but will vaccines ever be able to elicit antibody responses this powerful? (pages 204–216)

Eventual AIDS vaccine failure in a rhesus monkey by viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Viral escape from CTL recognition may be a major limitation of the CTL-based AIDS vaccines that are likely to be administered to large human populations over the next several years.

Vaginal transmission of cell-associated HIV-1 in the mouse is blocked by a topical, membrane-modifying agent

A mouse model in which SCID mice carry human peripheral blood leukocytes should prove useful for investigating cell-associated HIV-1 transmucosal HIV- 1 transmission, as well as for screening reagents for their potential efficacy in preventing sexual HIV-2 transmission.

Synergistic Inhibition of HIV‐1 in Activated and Resting Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Monocyte‐Derived Macrophages, and Selected Drug‐Resistant Isolates With Nucleoside Analogues Combined With a Natural Product, Resveratrol

It is reported that resveratrol (RV) synergistically enhances the anti‐HIV‐1 activity of the nucleoside analogues zidovudine (AZT), zalcitabine (ddC), and didanosine ( ddl), and when compared with hydroxyurea (HU), both 100 mM HU and 10 mM RV showed similar enhancement of ddI‐antiviral suppressive activity.

Differential human immunodeficiency virus-suppressive activity of reverse transcription inhibitors in resting and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes: implications for therapy.

It is demonstrated that specific NRTI antiretroviral agents have different activity against HIV RT, depending on the state of cell cycle of the infected cell.

Synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of oximino-piperidino-piperidine amides. 1. Orally bioavailable CCR5 receptor antagonists with potent anti-HIV activity.

Compound 1, which has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in rodents and primates, excellent oral bioavailability, and potent antiviral activity against a wide range of primary HIV-1 isolates, is a potentially promising new candidate for treatment of HIV- 1 infection.

Crosslinked HIV-1 envelope–CD4 receptor complexes elicit broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques

It is suggested that covalently crosslinked complexes of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein and CD4 elicit broadly neutralizing humoral responses that, in part, may be directed against a novel epitope(s) found on theAIDS envelope.