CONCLUSIONS A significant reduction in the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was obtained as early as 1 month after implementation of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT). Over half of our patients either could not tolerate the tinnitus control instrument (TCI) or obtained a poor result in the TRT trial. Candidates for TRT should thus be restricted to patients who can use the TCI. OBJECTIVES TRT has been regarded as a promising therapy for tinnitus, although there have been very few studies to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from TRT. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate TRT's pros and cons based on our experience. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The subjects were 217 patients with intractable tinnitus. Of those, 84 tolerated TRT and 79 were followed for 6 months. The remaining subjects did not undergo TRT. Japanese translations of the THI and visual analogue scale of annoyance caused by tinnitus (VAS) were administered to evaluate the effect of TRT. RESULTS The average THI score at the beginning of the treatment was 48.8, but it was 36.3 (p<0.01) 1 month after starting the treatment and 28.3 (p<0.005) after 6 months.