Propulsive design principles in a multi-jet siphonophore

  title={Propulsive design principles in a multi-jet siphonophore},
  author={Kelly R. Sutherland and Brad J. Gemmell and Sean P. Colin and John H. Costello},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
ABSTRACT Coordination of multiple propulsors can provide performance benefits in swimming organisms. Siphonophores are marine colonial organisms that orchestrate the motion of multiple swimming zooids for effective swimming. However, the kinematics at the level of individual swimming zooids (nectophores) have not been examined in detail. We used high-speed, high-resolution microvideography and particle image velocimetry of the physonect siphonophore Nanomia bijuga to study the motion of the… 

Distributed propulsion enables fast and efficient swimming modes in physonect siphonophores

Significance Siphonophores are colonial cnidarians that, unlike single jetters such as squids, swim using propulsion from multiple jets, produced using subunits called nectophores. Distributing

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It is found that colonial swimming achieves energetic benefits for jetting individuals within the colony because they require significantly lower per-module power than that required by a lone jet module swimming at the same speed.

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A comparative analysis of a variety of parameters such as efficiency, kinematics and jet parameters, and review how they can aid the understanding of the principles of aquatic jet propulsion are provided.

Maneuvering Performance in the Colonial Siphonophore, Nanomia bijuga

The colonial architecture, simple neurocircuitry, and tightly controlled pulsed jets by N. bijuga allow for a diverse repertoire of movements and are a model system for informing underwater propulsion and navigation of complex environments.

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Fast-swimming hydromedusae exploit velar kinematics to form an optimal vortex wake

This paper presents high-speed video and dye-flow visualizations of free-swimming Nemopsis bachei hydromedusae to indicate that the time-dependent velar kinematics observed during the swimming cycle primarily serve to optimize vortices formed by the ejected water rather than to affect the speed of the ejected flow.

Analysis of locomotion in a siphonophore colony

  • G. Mackie
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1964
Evidence is given that nectophores undergo sensory transformation during life, initially serving for the evocation only of R, later only for F, and use of excess Mg2+ in various concentrations shows that striated muscle action is suppressed more readily than that of unstriated muscle and that both are suppressed more easily than is transmission of excitation between nECTophores and stem.

Jet flow in steadily swimming adult squid

Digital particle imaging velocimetry was used to visualize the jet flow of adult long-finned squid Loligo pealei and suggested that at medium speeds squid enjoy an increased flexibility in the locomotive strategies they use to control their dynamic balance.

Multi-jet propulsion organized by clonal development in a colonial siphonophore

Developmental differences between clonal nectophores of the physonect Nanomia bijuga produce a division of labour in thrust and torque production that controls direction and magnitude of whole-colony swimming.

Morphology, swimming performance and propulsive mode of six co-occurring hydromedusae.

An examination of the wakes behind swimming medusae indicated that, in contrast to the clearly defined jet structures produced by prolate species, oblatemedusae did not produce defined jets but instead produced prominent vortices at the bell margins, which are consistent with a predominantly drag-based, rowing mode of propulsion by the oblate species.

Hydrodynamic advantages of swimming by salp chains

Using theory, it is shown that asynchronous swimming with multiple pulsed jets yields substantial hydrodynamic benefit due to the production of steady swimming velocities, which limit drag, and that fluid interactions between jet wakes are minimized.

Pulsed jet dynamics of squid hatchlings at intermediate Reynolds numbers

The detection of high propulsive efficiency in paralarvae is significant because it contradicts many studies that predict low propulsive Efficiency at intermediate Re for inertial forms of locomotion.

Jet propulsion in Doliolum (Tunicata: Thaliacea)

Ambient fluid motions influence swimming and feeding by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

Both laboratory and in situ particle image velocimetry data demonstrated that feeding currents of M. leidyi were eroded by ambient fluid motions, but the overall flux to the feeding structures remained constant due to higher swimming speeds in turbulent conditions.

Suction-based propulsion as a basis for efficient animal swimming

It is shown that efficient swimming in lampreys and jellyfish is achieved primarily through suction, as vortex-associated low pressure regions are synchronized by undulations of the body.