Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching

@article{Sharman2006ProprioceptiveNF,
  title={Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching},
  author={Melanie J. Sharman and Andrew G. Cresswell and Stephan Riek},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2006},
  volume={36},
  pages={929-939}
}
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques are commonly used in the athletic and clinical environments to enhance both active and passive range of motion (ROM) with a view to optimising motor performance and rehabilitation. PNF stretching is positioned in the literature as the most effective stretching technique when the aim is to increase ROM, particularly in respect to short-term changes in ROM. With due consideration of the heterogeneity across the applied PNF… 
Static Stretching and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching within Collegiate Athletes
Introduction: Stretching before and after practice or a work out is common among athletes. Stretching serves a variety of purposes such as improving joint range of motion. Two popular forms of
Optimal Contraction Intensity During Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation for Maximal Increase of Range of Motion
TLDR
Where optimizing increased ROM in healthy athletes is the desired outcome of PIR-PNF application, coaches and trainers should elicit contraction intensities of approximately 65% MVIC.
Comparison of Active, Passive, and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching for Improving Glenohumeral Internal Rotation
TLDR
It is revealed that active, passive, and PNF stretching over time can elicit increases in internal rotation within the glenohumeral joint, and these changes are apparent after 1 week of stretching intervention.
THE PNF (PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION) STRETCHING TECHNIQUE - A BRIEF REVIEW
TLDR
PNF stretching (or proprioceptive muscular facilitation) is one of the most effective forms of flexibility training for increasing range of motion and these techniques help develop muscular strength and endurance, joint stability, mobility, neuromuscular control and coordination.
Running head: PNF STRETCHING Comparing the effects of two proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques and static stretching on active knee extension range of motion and vertical jump performance
TLDR
This study was the first to compare these stretching techniques using recommended pre-activity procedures and identified no significant differences in vertical jump height before or after the use of static, autogenic inhibition, or reciprocal inhibition stretching.
Positive Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Sports Performance: A Review
The role of flexibility on athletic performance is going on to be studied both acutely and how it affects the performance in the long-term. It is important to understand the effects of various
Effects of a Single Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Exercise With and Without Post-stretching Activation on the Muscle Function and Mechanical Properties of the Plantar Flexor Muscles
TLDR
It is concluded that, if PNF stretching is used as a warm-up exercise, target-muscle-specific PSA should follow to keep the performance output at the same level while maintaining the benefit of a greater ROM.
A Comparison of Assisted and Unassisted Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Techniques and Static Stretching
TLDR
It was found that all 3 forms of active stretching provided similar improvements in the ROM and poststretching performance decrements in MT and angular velocity, but athletes should not use these techniques before important competitions or training because of the impairment of limb velocity and MT.
Efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation compared to other stretching modalities in range of motion gain in young healthy adults: A systematic review
TLDR
Moderate-quality evidence shows that results differ between self HR and control in terms of ROM gain, and does not allow to state if PNF is more or less effective than other stretches for improving ROM in healthy young adults.
Uninvolved versus target muscle contraction during contract: relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.
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References

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TLDR
The data suggest that CR and ACR do not evoke sufficient relaxation in muscles opposing knee extension to overcome tension facilitation generated by stretch, and increases in ROM are achieved while the hamstrings are under considerable tension.
Differential responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch techniques.
TLDR
The findings suggest that decreases in muscle activity may not be strongly related to increases in joint range of motion and that factors other than muscle relaxation are important in achieving increased ROM.
Improved Stretching with Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
TLDR
The purpose of this paper is to present the most common PNF stretching techniques with appropriate terminology, which will provide clarity and consistency.
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TLDR
The results of this study support the findings of those previous investigations for two-joint muscles in which PNF techniques were more effective than static stretching for increasing range of motion, and reveal a reciprocal activation was the most effective for increasingrange of motion.
Soleus muscle electromyographic activity and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion during four stretching procedures.
TLDR
Increased tonic EMG levels produced by input from other neural pathways affecting alpha motoneurons in the AC and HR-AC procedures may have masked this inhibitory reflex.
Effect of submaximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching
TLDR
CRPNF stretching using submaximal contractions is just as beneficial at improving hamstring flexibility as maximal contractions, and may reduce the risk of injury associated with PNF stretching.
Impact of Prior Exercise on Hamstring Flexibility: A Comparison of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Static Stretching
TLDR
Results demonstrated that PNF performed after exercise enhanced acute hamstring flexibility, and implementing a PNF stretching routine following exercise may augment current stretching practices among athletes.
The relationship between isometric contraction durations and improvement in shoulder joint range of motion.
TLDR
A modified PNF procedure referred to as the slow-reversal-hold-relax (SRHR) flexibility technique was employed in the investigation, and it was hypothesized that longer MVIC time increments used with the SRHR flexibility technique would provide greater range of motion (ROM).
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