Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera)

@article{Morrow2015ProposalFA,
  title={Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera)},
  author={Christine C Morrow and Paco C{\'a}rdenas},
  journal={Frontiers in Zoology},
  year={2015},
  volume={12}
}
BackgroundDemospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered… 
Molecular phylogenies challenge the classification of Polymastiidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) based on morphology
TLDR
A phylogenetic reconstruction of Polymastiidae based on novel data on two molecular markers, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and large subunit ribosomal DNA, obtained from a broad set of species suggests a high level of homoplasy of morphological characters, which is not an appropriate base for the natural classification of Poly Mastiidae.
Mitochondrial Evolution in the Demospongiae (Porifera): Phylogeny, Divergence Time, and Genome Biology.
TLDR
The results strongly support a sister relationship between Keratosa and (Verongimorpha+Heteroscleromorpha), contradicting previous studies using nuclear markers, and show for the first time support for a grouping of Suberitida+(Clionaida+(Tethyida+Poecilosclerida).
Soft sponges with tricky tree: On the phylogeny of dictyoceratid sponges
TLDR
This study provides a phylogenetic hypothesis of the keratose order Dictyoceratida based on nuclear markers of higher resolution potential (ITS and 28S C-region) and indicates the paraphyly of the largest dictyocers family, the Thorectidae, due to a sister group relationship of its subfamily Phyllospongiinae with Family Spongiidae.
Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations
For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP)
Phylogenetic Reassessment of Antarctic Tetillidae (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) Reveals New Genera and Genetic Similarity among Morphologically Distinct Species
TLDR
The incorporation of 25 new COI and 18S sequences of Antarctic Tetillidae to those used recently for assessing the genera phylogeny has allowed the resolution of some poorly resolved nodes and to confirm the monophyly of previously identified clades.
The systematics of carnivorous sponges.
TLDR
The first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the carnivorous sponges is presented, interpret these results in conjunction with morphological characters, and propose a revised classification of the group, providing strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that carnivory in spongees has evolved only once.
Phylogenetic relationships of heteroscleromorph demosponges and the affinity of the genus Myceliospongia (Demospongiae incertae sedis)
TLDR
The results support the sub-class relationship within demosponges and reveal four main clades in Heteroscleromorpha sensu stricto, which appear to be natural lineages that unite previously defined taxonomic orders.
Molecular and morphological congruence of three new cryptic Neopetrosia spp. in the Caribbean
TLDR
This study highlights the importance of integrating molecular and morphological systematics for the discrimination of new Neopetrosia spp.
Increased taxon sampling provides new insights into the phylogeny and evolution of the subclass Calcaronea (Porifera, Calcarea)
TLDR
The resulting phylogeny supports previous findings that the current classification of the subclass Calcaronea is highly artificial, and with high levels of homoplasy, and the close relationship between the order Baerida and the genus Achramorpha suggest that the orderBaerida should be abandoned.
Integrative Taxonomy of Amazon Reefs' Arenosclera spp.: A New Clade in the Haplosclerida (Demospongiae)
TLDR
A Karlin dinucleotide dissimilarity analysis of metagenomes carried out on cryopreserved samples recognized A. amazonensis sp.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 108 REFERENCES
Reconstructing ordinal relationships in the Demospongiae using mitochondrial genomic data.
TLDR
This work assembled a mitochondrial genomic dataset comprising all orders of demosponges that includes 17 new and five previously published complete demosponge mitochondrial genomes and assembled a modified method for the analysis of gene order data that works well when translocation of tRNA genes are more frequent than other rearrangements.
Systematics and evolution of Demospongiae
TLDR
A general consensus among spongologists has not yet been achieved regarding this group and the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongsiae and between Demospongiae and other clades of Porifera and metazoans are still unresolved.
Phylogenetic analyses of marine sponges within the order Verongida: a comparison of morphological and molecular data
TLDR
The molecular data provide good support for the current classification of verongid sponges, but suggest a re-examination and potential reclassification of the genera Aiolochroia and Pseudoceratina, which highlight two current issues in morphology-based sponge taxonomy: intermediate character states and undetermined character polarity.
Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).
TLDR
By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, this work supports previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification.
Molecular phylogeny of Demospongiae: implications for classification and scenarios of character evolution.
TLDR
The topology derived from molecular data provides a basis for proposing a new classification of Demospongiae s.s., and suggests a reverse polarity of some characters, with respect to traditional conceptions: viviparity, presence of monaxon spicules and of spongin appear to be ancestral, whereas ovip parity, and presence of tetraxon spicule appear as derived characters.
Horny sponges and their affairs: on the phylogenetic relationships of keratose sponges.
TLDR
This work used molecular data to validate the coherence of all recognised orders, families and subfamilies that are currently defined using morphological characteristics, and established the name Verongimorpha for the clade combining verongid, chondrosid and halisarcid taxa and readjust the content of its sister-clade Keratosa.
The phylogeny of halichondrid demosponges: past and present re-visited with DNA-barcoding data
TLDR
The classification history of halichondrid taxa is reviewed, the current and predominantly ribosomal molecular data is compared, and new phylogenetic hypotheses with mitochondrial data from DNA barcoding are supported.
Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae p) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy
TLDR
The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca.
No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera
TLDR
Within the currently more widely accepted hypothesis of a monophyletic Porifera, it is formally proposed here to raise Homoscleromorpha to the class rank (the fourth one), following the PhyloCode.
The systematic position of some boring sponges (Demospongiae, Hadromerida) studied by molecular analysis
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis of some bioeroding sponges of the family Clionaidae was performed to resolve some taxonomic problems both at the specific and the supraspecific level using the D2 and D3 regions of 28S rDNA, demonstrating the genetic identity of taxa C. viridis and C. nigricans.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...