Propofol induces the elevation of intracellular calcium via morphological changes in intracellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.

@article{Urabe2020PropofolIT,
  title={Propofol induces the elevation of intracellular calcium via morphological changes in intracellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.},
  author={Tomoaki Urabe and Yuhki Yanase and Serika Motoike and Kana Harada and Izumi Hide and Shigeru Tanaka and Yasuo M. Tsutsumi and Masashi Kawamoto and Norio Sakai},
  journal={European journal of pharmacology},
  year={2020},
  pages={
          173303
        }
}
Propofol Causes Sustained Ca2+ Elevation in Endothelial Cells by Stimulating Ryanodine Receptor and Suppressing Plasmalemmal Ca2+ Pump
TLDR
The data suggest propofol elicited Ca2- release and repressed Ca2+ clearance, causing a sustained cytosolic [Ca2+]i elevation, and the latter may cause reactive oxygen species and bradykinin release, resulting in pain.
Effects of Remimazolam and Propofol on Ca2+ Regulation by Ryanodine Receptor 1 with Malignant Hyperthermia Mutation
TLDR
It is concluded that remimazolam and propofol can be safely used as an anesthetic in MH-susceptible patients with RYR1-mutation without causing MH and may be safely substituted for an MH-triggering anesthetic when RYP1-mediated MH occurs.
Characterization of intracellular calcium mobilization induced by remimazolam, a newly approved intravenous anesthetic
TLDR
It is confirmed that high concentrations of remimazolam elevated intracellular calcium in a dose-dependent manner in these cells tested, and studies using various inhibitors revealed that this calcium elevation might be mediated by the GPCRs-IP3 pathway.

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Propofol Affects Neurodegeneration and Neurogenesis by Regulation of Autophagy via Effects on Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis
TLDR
It is suggested that propofol-mediated cell survival or neurogenesis is closely associated with prop ofol’s effects on autophagy by activation of ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors.
Propofol-induced Inhibition of Catecholamine Release Is Reversed by Maintaining Calcium Influx
TLDR
Propofol at clinically relevant concentrations promotes the catecholamine release as long as Ca2+ influx is supported, an unexpected finding that will allow for a better understanding in preventing propofol-induced hypotension.
Neuroprotective Effects of Propofol in a Model of Ischemic Cortical Cell Cultures: Role of Glutamate and Its Transporters
TLDR
Propofol showed a neuroprotective effect in this in vitro model of OGD, which was apparently mediated by a GLT1-independent restoration of the glutamate uptake impaired during the injury.
Propofol induces a metabolic switch to glycolysis and cell death in a mitochondrial electron transport chain-dependent manner
TLDR
It is demonstrated that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol, used within a clinically relevant exposure time, suppressed the mitochondrial function, caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, and induced a metabolic switch, from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, by targeting complexes I and III of mitochondria.
Propofol Protects Hippocampal Neurons from Hypoxia-Reoxygenation Injury by Decreasing Calcineurin-Induced Calcium Overload and Activating YAP Signaling
TLDR
Propofol protected hippocampal neurons from I/R injury through two independent signaling pathways, including the calcineurin/FKBP12.6-RyR/calcium overload pathway and the RhoA/Lats1/YAP/Bcl-2 pathway.
Propofol reduces synaptic strength by inhibiting sodium and calcium channels at nerve terminals
TLDR
How propofol modulates synaptic transmission at a giant glutamatergic synapse, the calyx of Held, in the rat brainstem is studied and the combination of both preand postsynaptic recordings may provide new insights into the prop ofol-modulated synaptic transmission.
The Effect of Propofol on Mitochondrial Fission during Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hippocampal Neurons
TLDR
Propofol could inhibit mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway evoked by OGD/R in rat hippocampal neurons, which may be via depressing calcium-overload.
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Propofol Decreases Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Mediated Apoptosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
TLDR
Novel prop ofol-induced cellular mechanisms for antiapoptotic activities in RPE cells undergoing ER stress are elucidated and the potential value of using propofol in the treatment of AMD is demonstrated.
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