Property-Directed Inference of Universal Invariants or Proving Their Absence

  title={Property-Directed Inference of Universal Invariants or Proving Their Absence},
  author={Aleksandr Karbyshev and Nikolaj Bj\orner and Shachar Itzhaky and Noam Rinetzky and Sharon Shoham},
  journal={J. ACM},
We present Universal Property Directed Reachability (PDR∀), a property-directed semi-algorithm for automatic inference of invariants in a universal fragment of first-order logic. PDR∀ is an extension of Bradley’s PDR/IC3 algorithm for inference of propositional invariants. PDR∀ terminates when it discovers a concrete counterexample, infers an inductive universal invariant strong enough to establish the desired safety property, or finds a proof that such an invariant does not exist. PDR∀ is not… CONTINUE READING
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