Properties of the quantum vacuum calculated from its structure

@article{Mainland2021PropertiesOT,
  title={Properties of the quantum vacuum calculated from its structure},
  author={Gordon Bruce Mainland and Bernard Mulligan},
  journal={Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
  year={2021},
  volume={1956}
}
Physicists have speculated about the properties of the quantum vacuum for at least 85 years; however, only recently have they understood the quantum vacuum sufficiently well to begin making testable predictions. Specifically, using Maxwell’s equations to describe the interaction of the electromagnetic field with charged lepton - antilepton vacuum fluctuations, it has been possible to calculate the permittivity of the vacuum, the speed of light in the vacuum, and the fine structure constant… 

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