Properties of the CO and H$_2$O MOLsphere of the red supergiant Betelgeuse from VLTI/AMBER observations

  title={Properties of the CO and H\$\_2\$O MOLsphere of the red supergiant Betelgeuse from VLTI/AMBER observations},
  author={Miguel Montarg{\`e}s and Pierre Kervella and Guy Perrin and Keiichi Ohnaka and Andrea Chiavassa and Stephen T. Ridgway and Sylvestre Lacour},
  journal={Astronomy and Astrophysics},
Context. Betelgeuse is the closest red supergiant (RSG), therefore it is well suited to study the complex processes in its atmosphere that lead to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. Aims. We intend to investigate the shape and composition of the close molecular layer (also known as the MOLsphere) that surrounds the star. This analysis is part of a wider program that aims at understanding the dynamics of the circumstellar envelope of Betelgeuse. Methods. On January and February… 
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - III. SPHERE/ZIMPOL imaging polarimetry in the visible
Context. Mass-loss occurring in red supergiants (RSGs) is a major contributor to the enrichment of the interstellar medium in dust and molecules. The physical mechanism of this mass loss is however
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - IV. VLTI/PIONIER interferometric monitoring of the photosphere
Context. The mass-loss mechanism of cool massive evolved stars is poorly understood. The proximity of Betelgeuse makes it an appealing target to study its atmosphere, map the shape of its envelope,
A CO-multilayer outer atmosphere for eight evolved stars revealed with VLTI/AMBER
We determine the physical parameters of the outer atmosphere of a sample of eight evolved stars, including the red supergiant α Scorpii, the red giant branch stars α Bootis and γ Crucis, the K
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - V. Rotation velocity and molecular envelope properties from ALMA
We observed Betelgeuse using ALMA's extended configuration in band 7 (f~340 GHz, {\lambda}~0.88 mm), resulting in a very high angular resolution of 18 mas. Using a solid body rotation model of the
The inhomogeneous submillimeter atmosphere of Betelgeuse
The mechanisms responsible for heating the extended atmospheres of early-M spectral-type supergiants are poorly understood. So too is the subsequent role these mechanisms play in driving the large
Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: New Mass and Distance Estimates for Betelgeuse through Combined Evolutionary, Asteroseismic, and Hydrodynamic Simulations with MESA
We conduct a rigorous examination of the nearby red supergiant Betelgeuse by drawing on the synthesis of new observational data and three different modeling techniques. Our observational results
ALMA and VLA reveal the lukewarm chromospheres of the nearby red supergiants Antares and Betelgeuse
We first present spatially resolved ALMA and VLA continuum observations of the early-M red supergiant Antares to search for the presence of a chromosphere at radio wavelengths. We resolve the
Effective temperatures of red supergiants estimated from line-depth ratios of iron lines in the YJ bands, 0.97-1.32μm
Determining the effective temperatures (Teff) of red supergiants (RSGs) observationally is important in many fields of stellar physics and galactic astronomy, yet some significant difficulties
Long Term Evolution of Surface Features on the Red Supergiant AZ Cyg
We present H-band interferometric observations of the red supergiant (RSG) AZ Cyg that were made with the Michigan Infra-Red Combiner (MIRC) at the six-telescope Center for High Angular Resolution
The convective surface of the red supergiant Antares. VLTI/PIONIER interferometry in the near infrared
Context. Convection is a candidate to explain the trigger of red supergiant star mass loss. Owing to the small size of the convective cells on the photosphere, few of their characteristics are known.


The molecular and dusty composition of Betelgeuse's inner circumstellar environment
Context. The study of the atmosphere of red supergiant stars in general and of Betelgeuse (α Orionis) in particular is of prime importance to understand dust formation and how mass is lost to the
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - II. Diffraction-limited spectro-imaging from 7.76 to 19.50 μm with VLT/VISIR
Context. Mass-loss occurring in red supergiants (RSGs) is a major contributor to the enrichment of the interstellar medium in dust and molecules. The physical mechanism of this mass loss is however
Spatially resolving the inhomogeneous structure of the dynamical atmosphere of Betelgeuse with VLTI/AMBER
Context. Aims. We present spatially resolved high-spectral resolution K-band observations of the red supergiant Betelgeuse (α Ori) using AMBER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our
The Close Circumstellar Environment of Betelgeuse: Adaptive Optics Spectro-imaging in the Near-IR with VLT/NACO
Context. Betelgeuse is one the largest stars in the sky in terms of angular diameter. Structures on the stellar photosphere have been detected in the visible and near-infrared as well as a compact
Infrared Spectra and Visibilities as Probes of the Outer Atmospheres of Red Supergiant Stars
In the light of the recent results of the stellar interferometry, we examine the nature of the extra molecular layer outside the photosphere of red supergiant stars, so far studied mostly with the
Radiative hydrodynamics simulations of red supergiant stars - II. Simulations of convection on Betelgeuse match interferometric observations
Context. The red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse is an irregular variable star. Convection may play an important role in understanding this variability. Interferometric observations can be interpreted
Warm water vapor envelope in the supergiants α Ori and α Her and its effects on the apparent size from the near-infrared to the mid-infrared
We present a possible interpretation for the increase of the angular diameter of the supergiants α Ori  (M 1-2 Ia-Ibe) and α Her (M 5 Ib-II) from the K band to the 11 μ m region and the
Imaging the dynamical atmosphere of the red supergiant Betelgeuse in the CO first overtone lines with VLTI/AMBER ,
Aims. We present one-dimensional aperture synthesis imaging of the red supergiant Betelgeuse (α Ori) with VLTI/AMBER. We reconstructed for the first time one-dimensional images in the individual CO
We report radio interferometric observations of the 12 C 16 O1 .3 mmJ = 2 − 1 emission line in the circumstellar envelope of the M supergiant α Ori and have detected and separated both the S1 and S2
Water on the Early M Supergiant Stars α Orionis and μ Cephei
We reanalyze the spectra of α Ori (M2 Iab) and μ Cep (M2 Ia) observed with the balloon-borne telescope Stratoscope II more than 35 years ago, and we confirm the presence of water in these early M