# Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.

@article{Abbott2016PropertiesOT, title={Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.}, author={Brad Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Matthew Robert Abernathy and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Carl Adams and Todd Adams and Paolo Addesso and Rana X. Adhikari and V B Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and Koji Arai and M. C. Araya and C. C. Arceneaux and Joseph S. Areeda and Nicolas Arnaud and K. G. Arun and Stefano Ascenzi and Gregory Ashton and Melanie Ast and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and Peter Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and Stanislav Babak and Philippe Bacon and M. K. M. Bader and Paul T. Baker and F. Baldaccini and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and J. C. B. Barayoga and S. E. Barclay and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and J. C. Batch and Christoph Baune and Viswanath Bavigadda and Marco Bazzan and Beate Behnke and Michał Bejger and A. S. Bell and C. J. Bell and B. K. Berger and Jes Bergman and Gerald Bergmann and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and J Betzwieser and Swetha Bhagwat and R. Bhandare and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Jeremy Birch and R Birney and Ofek Birnholtz and Sebastien Biscans and A. Bisht and Massimiliano Bitossi and Christopher Michael Biwer and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Steven Bloemen and Oliver Bock and T. P. Bodiya and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and Christina Bogan and Alejandro Boh{\'e} and P. Bojtos and Charlotte Z. Bond and F. Bondu and Romain Bonnand and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Sukanta Bose and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and P. R. Brady and Vladimir B. Braginsky and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Tristan Briant and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Patrick Brockill and A. F. Brooks and D. A. Brown and D D Brown and Nic M. Brown and C. C. Buchanan and Aaron Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and D. Buskulic and Christelle Buy and R. L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Kipp C. Cannon and J. Cao and C. D. Capano and E. Capocasa and Franco Carbognani and Santiago Caride and Julia Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Carlos Cepeda and Lorenzo Cerboni Baiardi and G. Cerretani and Elisa Cesarini and R. Chakraborty and Tara Chalermsongsak and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and Man Leong Chan and S. Chao and P R Charlton and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and H. Y. Chen and Y. R. Chen and C. Cheng and Andrea Chincarini and Antonino Chiummo and H. S. Cho and M. Cho and Jong H. Chow and Nelson Christensen and Qi Chu and Sheon S Y Chua and S. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Filiberto Clara and J A Clark and F. Cleva and Eliana Marina Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and Alberto Colla and Christophe Collette and Lynn R. Cominsky and Marcio Constancio and Andrea Conte and L Conti and D. Cook and T. R. Corbitt and Neil J. Cornish and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Peter Couvares and Edith Cowan and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Kieran Craig and Jolien D. E. Creighton and Jonathan Cripe and S. Gwynne Crowder and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and Tito Dal Canton and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and N. S. Darman and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and H. P. Daveloza and M. Davier and G. S. Davies and E J Daw and Richard N. Day and Daniel B. DeBra and Gergely Debreczeni and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and M. De Laurentis and Samuel Deleglise and Walter Del Pozzo and Thomas Denker and Thomas Dent and H. Dereli and Vladimir Dergachev and Rosario De Rosa and R. T. Derosa and Riccardo DeSalvo and Caleb Devine and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D{\'i}az and Luciano Di Fiore and M. Di Giovanni and Alberto Di Lieto and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Angela D. V. Di Virgilio and Goran Dojcinoski and Vincent Dolique and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Rebecca Douglas and Turlough P. Downes and M. Drago and Ronald W. P. Drever and J C Driggers and Zhihui Du and M. Ducrot and Sheila E. Dwyer and Tega Boro Edo and Matthew C. Edwards and Anamaria Effler and H. B. Eggenstein and Phil Ehrens and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and William Engels and Reed Essick and Zachariah B. Etienne and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and Ryan Everett and Maxim Factourovich and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and Qi Fang and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and E Fauchon-Jones and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and H. Fehrmann and Martin M. Fejer and I. Ferrante and E.C. Ferreira and Federico Ferrini and Francesco Fidecaro and Irene Fiori and Donatella Fiorucci and Rebecca Fisher and R. Flaminio and Mark Fletcher and J.-D. Fournier and S. Franco and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and Volker Frey and T. T. Fricke and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Sebastian M. Gaebel and Jonathan R. Gair and Luca Gammaitoni and Sampada Gaonkar and F. Garufi and Alberto Gatto and G. Gaur and N. C. Gehrels and Gianluca Gemme and Bruce Gendre and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Julia George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and Vincent Germain and Archisman Ghosh and S. Ghosh and J. A. Giaime and K. D. Giardina and A. Giazotto and Karl Gill and A. Glaefke and Evan Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Gond{\'a}n and Gabriela Gonz{\'a}lez and J. M. Gonzalez Castro and A. Gopakumar and N. A. Gordon and Michael L. Gorodetsky and Sarah E. Gossan and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and Christian Graef and Philip Graff and Massimo Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and Paul J. Groot and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and G. Guidi and X. Guo and A. Gupta and M. Gupta and Kaitlin E. Gushwa and E. K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and Jan J. Hacker and Bernard Hall and Evan D. Hall and Giles D. Hammond and Maria Haney and M. M. Hanke and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and James E. Hanson and T Hardwick and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and M. J. Hart and Michael T. Hartman and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Haughian and James Healy and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and John Hennig and Alastair Heptonstall and Mich{\`e}le Heurs and Stefan Hild and David C. Hoak and Kari Alison Hodge and David Jonathan Hofman and Sophie Elizabeth Hollitt and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Philip F. Hopkins and D. J. Hosken and James Hough and E. Alasdair Houston and E J Howell and Y. M. Hu and S. Huang and Eliu A. Huerta and Dominique Huet and Barbara J. Hughey and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and T. Huynh--Dinh and Ashikuzzaman Idrisy and Nathaniel M. Indik and D. R. Ingram and Ra Inta and Hafizah Noor Isa and J. M. Isac and Maximiliano Isi and Gabriela Islas and Tomoki Isogai and Bala R. Iyer and Kiwamu Izumi and T. Jacqmin and Haeng Jin Jang and Karan Jani and Piotr Jaranowski and S. Jawahar and F. Jim{\'e}nez-Forteza and W. W. Johnson and Nathan K. Johnson-McDaniel and D. I. Jones and R. Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and Haris K and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vassiliki Kalogera and S Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah Kanner and Sudarshan Karki and Marie Kasprzack and Erotokritos Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Steffen Kaufer and Tejinder Kaur and Keita Kawabe and Fumiko Kawazoe and Fabien K{\'e}f{\'e}lian and Marcel S. Kehl and David Keitel and David Bruce Kelley and William P. Kells and Ross Kennedy and Joey Shapiro Key and Alexander Khalaidovski and F. Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and Z. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and N Kijbunchoo and C. Kim and J. H. Kim and K. Kim and Namjun Kim and Namjun Kim and Y.-M. Kim and Eleanor J King and P. J. King and D. L. Kinzel and J S Kissel and L. Kleybolte and Sergey Klimenko and S. M. Koehlenbeck and Keiko Kokeyama and Soumen Koley and V. T. Kondrashov and Antonios Kontos and Mikhail Korobko and William Z Korth and Izabela Jonek Kowalska and Darby Kozak and V. Kringel and Badri Krishnan and Andrzej Kr{\'o}lak and C. Krueger and G. Kuehn and P. Kumar and L. Kuo and Adam Kutynia and Benjamin D. Lackey and Michael Landry and Jacob Lange and Brian Lantz and Paul D. Lasky and Albert Lazzarini and C Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and Eric O. Lebigot and C. H. Lee and H. K. Lee and H. m. Lee and K. H. Lee and Amber Lenon and Matteo Leonardi and Jonathan Leong}, journal={Physical review letters}, year={2016}, volume={116 24}, pages={ 241102 } }

On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36_{-4…

## 590 Citations

GW170814: A Three-Detector Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

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For the first time, the nature of gravitational-wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network is tested, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.

GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes.

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It is concluded that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.

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This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral.

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The association of GRB 170817A, detected by Fermi-GBM 1.7 s after the coalescence, corroborates the hypothesis of a neutron star merger and provides the first direct evidence of a link between these mergers and short γ-ray bursts.

Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger

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On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced…

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On August 17, 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors observed a low-mass compact binary inspiral. The initial sky localization of the source of the gravitational-wave…

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On 2017 June 8 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave (GW) signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave…

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The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the…

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Details of the method and computations are given, including information about the search pipelines, a derivation of the likelihood function for the analysis, a description of the astrophysical search trigger distribution expected from merging BBHs, details on the computational methods, and an analytic method of estimating the detector sensitivity that is calibrated to the measurements.

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Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the…

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