Intrinsic carnosine metabolism in the human kidney
The cell-bound sialidase of Actinomyces viscosus DSM 43798 was solubilized by mechanical cell disruption and lysozyme treatment. The enzyme was enriched 30,000-fold by cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration, and FPLC ion-exchange chromatography, thus obtaining 10 micrograms sialidase protein from 26 g wet cells with a specific activity of 680 U/mg protein. Since sialidase activity was also found in the culture medium, this enzyme was isolated as well, requiring the additional application of FPLC gel-filtration. Both sialidase preparations were apparently homogenous on SDS-PAGE and have similar properties. The substrate specificity of the A. viscosus sialidase was tested with 16 sialoglycoconjugates: The enzyme showed a higher activity with serum glycoproteins than with gangliosides, mucins or sialyllactoses. 4-O-Acetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid was not cleaved from equine submandibular gland mucins or serum glycoproteins in contrast to N-acetyl- and N-glycoloylneuraminic acid. 9-O-Acetyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid was released from bovine submandibular gland mucin, as confirmed by TLC. The sialidase hydrolyses alpha(2----6)-linkages more rapidly than alpha(2----8)- and alpha(2----3)-bonds. Cations, except Hg2+, or chelating agents have no influence on enzyme activity. The sialidase has a relatively high molecular mass of 150 kDa, but consists of only one unit. The enzyme is labile towards freezing and thawing, but can be stored at 4 degrees C in 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.