Butyrylcholinesterase identification in a phenylvalerate esterase-enriched fraction sensitive to low mipafox concentrations in chicken brain
Chicken serum, the usual in vivo animal for testing organophosphorus delayed neuropathy, has long been reported not to contain a homologous activity of the neuronal neuropathy target esterase (NTE) activity when it is assayed according to standard methods as the phenyl valerate esterase (PVase) activity, which is resistant to paraoxon and sensitive to mipafox. However, a PVase activity (1000-1500 nmol/min/ml) can be measured in serum that is extremely sensitive to both paraoxon, a non-neuropathic organophosphorus compound and mipafox, a model neuropathy inducer. The inhibition was time progressive in both cases, suggesting a covalent phosphorilating reaction. The fixed time inhibition curves suggest at least two sensitive components. The IC50 for 30 min, at 37 degrees C are 6 and 51 nM for paraoxon and 4 and 110 nM for mipafox, for every sensitive component. When paraoxon was removed from a serum sample pretreated with the inhibitor, the paraoxon sensitive PVase activity was recovered, in spite of showing a time progressive inhibition suggesting that hydrolytic dephosphorylating reaction recovered at a significant rate. The reactivation of the phosphorylated enzyme could explain that the time progressive inhibitions curves for long time with paraoxon tend to reach a plateau depending on the inhibition concentration. However, with mipafox, the curve approached the same maximal inhibitions at all concentrations as expected for a permanent covalent irreversible phosphorylation, which is coherent with the observations that the activity remained inhibited after removing the inhibitor. Data of serum esterases described in this paper showed similar properties to those previously reported for peripheral nerve soluble phenylvalerate esterase: (1) extremely high sensitivity to paraoxon and mipafox; (2) time progressive kinetic with two sensitive components; (3) recovery of activity after removal of paraoxon; and (4) permanent inhibition with mipafox. These properties of serum esterases are very similar to those of soluble fraction of peripheral nerves. So, serum PVases could be considered as appropriate biomarkers, as a mirror for the neural soluble paraoxon and mipafox sensitive soluble esterases that could be used for biomonitoring purpose.