Three strains ofPenicillium chrysogenum selected for high penicillin yield and of independent lineage were marked with suitable genetical characters prior to the synthesis of several heterozygous diploids. These parental strains had domestic codes, C, D and Y. Two diploids, between differently labelled mutants of strain C and Y, produced similar amounts of penicillin to strain C, which was less than that produced by strain Y. Previous work had indicated that genes responsible for increased penicillin yield were recessive and the present results suggested that such genes in strains C and Y were allelic, apart from the presence of one or more additional recessive mutations leading to greater penicillin production in the higher yielding parent. Three diploids made between mutants of strains D and Y were lower in penicillin yield than either original parent and only in the case of one diploid compared with one of the parental strains was this difference not significant. In strains D and Y, therefore, there may have been some recessive genes concerned with increasing penicillin yield which were non-allelic. However, no first order segregants arising spontaneously or subsequent to X-ray treatment produced higher levels of penicillin than the better yielding original parent in any cross.