Deciphering the biology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the era of reverse genetics.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was adapted to serial propagation in Vero cell cultures by adding trypsin to the medium. PEDV-infected cells showed a distinct cytoplasmic fluorescence when examined by a fluorescent-antibody-staining technique. Cytopathic effects, such as vacuolation, formation of syncytia, and fusion of cells, were detected even at passage 1 of the PEDV in Vero cells. Once adapted, the virus induced numerous syncytia containing over 100 nuclei. From virus passage 5 on, all cells forming the monolayer were fused and totally destroyed within 24 h after inoculation. Cell culture-grown PEDV had typical coronavirus morphology when viewed by electron microscopy. Attempts to propagate PEDV in several primary and secondary fetal porcine cell cultures in the presence or absence of trypsin were unsuccessful.