Propagation delays induced in GPS signals by dry air, water vapor, hydrometeors, and other particulates

Abstract

Dry air, water vapor, hydrometeors, and other particulates (sand, dust, aerosols, and volcanic ash) in the atmosphere introduce microwave propagation delays. These delays must be properly characterized to achieve the highest accuracy in surveying and atmospheric sensing using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. In this paper we review the theory of… (More)

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