Proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes are expressed in human skin

  title={Proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes are expressed in human skin},
  author={Andrzej T. Slominski and Gennady Ermak and J Hwang and Ashok Chakraborty and Joseph E. Mazurkiewicz and Martin C Mihm},
  journal={FEBS Letters},

Corticotropin releasing hormone and related peptides can act as bioregulatory factors in human keratinocytes

It is reported that CRH, sauvagine, and urocortin inhibit proliferation of human HaCaT keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner and can modify human keratinocyte phenotype through a receptor-mediated pathway.

In situ expression of corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes in human skin

It is suggested that the skin may have “a local stress response system,” whose activity is mediated by CRH and POMC peptides, in an equivalent to hypothalamus‐pituitary adrenal axis, and are regulated by inflammatory cells as well as by autocrine mechanisms.

Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress.

Cutaneous expression of the CRH/POMC system is highly organized, encoding mediators and receptors similar to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, that in the skin is expressed as a highly localized response which neutralizes noxious stimuli and attendant immune reactions.

Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in human skin.

It is suggested that in human skin the CRH signaling system is both operative and under regulatory control.

Cutaneous expression of corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, and CRH receptors

  • A. SlominskiJ. Wortsman E. Wei
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2001
The cutaneous CRH/POMC expression is highly reactive to common stressors such as immune cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, cutaneous pathology, or even the physiological changes associated with the hair cycle phase, and similar to its central analog, the local expression and action of CRH / POMC elements appear to be highly organized and entrained, representing general mechanism of cutaneous response to stressful stimuli.

Expression of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Malignant Melanoma

Higher expression of CRH in malignant cells has been detected in thyroid carcinomas and breast cancers without accompanying clinical manifestations of hyperadrenocorticism, as in ectopic CRH-adrenOCorticotropic hormone (ACTH) tumors.

Expression of proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and CRH receptor in melanoma cells, nevus cells, and normal human melanocytes.

Immunohistochemistry shows that CRH as well as POMC is strongly expressed in advanced melanomas, such as vertically growing lesions of acral lentiginous, nodular and metastatic melanoma, in contrast to negative expression in nevus cells, and indicates that tumor progression accentuates CRH, CRH-R, and PomC expression by melanoma cells.

Differential expression of HPA axis homolog in the skin

Modulation of the human hair follicle pigmentary unit by corticotropin‐releasing hormone and urocortin peptides

It is indicated that CRH peptides can differentially influence hair follicle melanocyte behavior not only via CRH‐R1 signaling but also by complex cross‐talk between CRH­R1 and CRH-R2.



Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides are synthesized and released by human keratinocytes.

Evidence is provided that human keratinocytes produce POMC-derived peptides such as alpha MSH and ACTH, which have been recognized as potent immunomodulatory mediators and may have a major impact on the skin immune system.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone in humans.

  • D. Orth
  • Biology, Medicine
    Endocrine reviews
  • 1992
A brief history of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) and Vasopressin as Mediators of Pituitary-Adrenal Activation in Humans and their role in regulating anterior pituitary function is presented.

Isolation and sequence analysis of the human corticotropin‐releasing factor precursor gene.

The deduced amino acid sequence of human corticotropin‐releasing factor exhibits seven amino acid substitutions in comparison with the ovine counterpart.

The human pro-opiomelanocortin gene: organization, sequence, and interspersion with repetitive DNA.

The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the coding regions of the gene demonstrates that the pattern of homologous and variable regions seen in the POMC protein between different species is reflected at the DNA level.

Physiology and pharmacology of corticotropin-releasing factor.

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