Promotional Reviews: An Empirical Investigation of Online Review Manipulation

@article{Mayzlin2012PromotionalRA,
  title={Promotional Reviews: An Empirical Investigation of Online Review Manipulation},
  author={Dina Mayzlin and Yaniv Dover and Judith A. Chevalier},
  journal={Kauffman: Large Research Projects (Topic)},
  year={2012}
}
Online reviews could, in principle, greatly improve consumers' ability to evaluate products. However, the authenticity of online user reviews remains a concern; firms have an incentive to manufacture positive reviews for their own products and negative reviews for their rivals. In this paper, we marry the diverse literature on economic subterfuge with the literature on organizational form. We undertake an empirical analysis of promotional reviews, examining both the extent to which fakery… 
Promotional Reviews: An Empirical Investigation of Online Review Manipulation
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Understanding and Overcoming Biases in Customer Reviews
TLDR
It is found that verified customers who are prompted (by an email) to write a review, submit, on average, up to 0.5 star higher ratings than self-motivated web reviewers, which provides support for the existence of social influence and selection biases during the submission of a web review.
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