Prolonged delivery of apomorphine through the buccal mucosa, towards a noninvasive sustained administration method in Parkinson's disease: in vivo investigations in pigs.

  title={Prolonged delivery of apomorphine through the buccal mucosa, towards a noninvasive sustained administration method in Parkinson's disease: in vivo investigations in pigs.},
  author={Constantin Itin and Rinat Komargodski and Dinorah Barasch and Abraham J. Domb and Amnon Hoffman},
  journal={Journal of pharmaceutical sciences},
In the current work, prolonged systemic delivery of apomorphine via buccal mucosa was shown to be a promising treatment for Parkinson`s disease as a substitute for clinically utilized subcutaneous infusions. Due to extensive 'first-pass' metabolism, apomorphine is administered parenterally to bypass liver metabolism. Drawbacks of parenteral administration cause low patient compliance and adherence to treatment. On the other hand, while also bypassing the liver, delivery through buccal mucosa… 


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