Proline accumulation in plants: a review

  title={Proline accumulation in plants: a review},
  author={Nathalie Verbruggen and Christian Hermans},
  journal={Amino Acids},
Proline (Pro) accumulation is a common physiological response in many plants in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the possible role(s) of proline accumulation. In this review, knowledge on the regulation of Pro metabolism during development and stress, results of genetic manipulation of Pro metabolism and current debate on Pro toxicity in plants are presented. 
Proline Accumulation in Plants: Roles in Stress Tolerance and Plant Development
Role of proline in seed germination, flowering and other developmental programmes is presented and some reports point out adverse effects of prolines when applied at higher doses.
Proline: a multifunctional amino acid.
Proline accumulation in plants
Most of the evidence supporting a role for proline in plant development is reviewed and critically discussed, paying special attention to the recently reported role of prolines in flower transition.
Osmolytes: Proline metabolism in plants as sensors of abiotic stress
This review gives a detailed account of different proline gene over-expressed in all the trans-genic crops so far and suggests creation of transgene overexpressing this gene would provide better and robust plants.
Proline accumulation and osmotic stress: an overview of P5CS gene in plants
Under osmotic stresses, proline accumulation is an important response of plants to these conditions. Proline is a compatible osmolyte which affects many cellular and molecular aspects of plant in
Methods for determination of proline in plants.
Three methods suitable for determination of free proline content are described: the isatin paper assay, colorimetric measurement, and HPLC-based amino acid analysis, which can be employed when concentration of all amino acids has to be compared.
Glycinebetaine and abiotic stress tolerance in plants
  • J. Giri
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Plant signaling & behavior
  • 2011
The accumulation of osmolytes like glycinebetaine (GB) in cell is known to protect organisms against abiotic stresses via osmoregulation or osmoprotection, but other roles of GB like cellular macromolecule protection and ROS detoxification have been suggested as mechanisms responsible for abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants.
Proline Metabolite Transport an Efficient Approach in corn Yield Improvement as Response to Drought Conditions
Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in corn plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought- resistant varieties.


Regulatory metabolic networks in drought stress responses.
Metabolic implications of stress-induced proline accumulation in plants
A mechanism is proposed whereby the interconversions of proline and P5C in different cell types and the associated transfer of redox potential between tissues may constitute a form of metabolic signalling within higher plants.
Regulation of proline accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh during development and in response to desiccation
Isotope tracer experiments with 14 C compounds established that glutamate, ornithine and arginine are precursors of the proline biosynthesis induced by PEG in response to low water potentials in Arabidopsis thaliana, and it is concluded that the accumulation of proline occurs through increased biosynthesis.
Regulation of levels of proline as an osmolyte in plants under water stress.
It is suggested that levels of Pro are regulated at the level of transcriptional the genes of these two enzymes during dehydration and rehydration, which appear to be the rate-limiting factors under water stress.
Effect of antisense L-Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase transgenic soybean plants subjected to osmotic and drought stress
The increase in proline levels during osmotic stress constitute anadaptive response by the plant, and it is confirmed that there is an association between P5CR translation and proline accumulation.
Environmental and developmental signals modulate proline homeostasis: evidence for a negative transcriptional regulator.
The results indicate that stress- and developmentally derived signals interact to determine proline homeostasis in Arabidopsis and that At-POX mRNA levels declined rapidly upon osmotic stress and this decline preceded proline accumulation.
Biological functions of proline in morphogenesis and osmotolerance revealed in antisense transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.
Results indicate that Pro is not just an osmoregulator in stressed plants but has a unique function involved in osmotolerance as well as in morphogenesis as a major constituent of cell wall structural proteins in plants.
Overexpression of [delta]-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase Increases Proline Production and Confers Osmotolerance in Transgenic Plants
Proline (Pro) accumulation has been correlated with tolerance to drought and salinity stresses in plants and overproduction of Pro in plants may lead to increased tolerance against these abiotic stresses, suggesting that activity of the first enzyme of the pathway is the rate-limiting factor in Pro synthesis.
Altered ABA, proline and hydrogen peroxide in an Arabidopsis glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant
Treatment with exogenous H2O2, as well as analysis of a mutant in nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2, demonstrated that the greater ABA stimulation of Pro accumulation in these mutants was caused by altered H 2O2 content as opposed to other metabolic changes.