Proliferative pattern of exophytic and superficially invasive and noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinomas.

In urothelial low-grade carcinomas of the bladder stage pT1, prognosis in general is good. In a subset of these tumors infiltrating beyond the lamina muscularis mucosae, prognosis clearly worsens. Unfortunately, evaluation of the lamina muscularis mucosae often is very difficult or even impossible because of its incomplete extension. In an… CONTINUE READING