A continuous labelling technique was employed to study the effects of external beta-radiation on the proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the mesenteric arterioles of mice. Labelled and non-labelled cells of either type were determined by autoradiographic techniques in control animals and at different times (3, 12 and 48 weeks) after single doses of 20 and 45 Gy (2000 and 4500 rads). The fraction of cells labelled, even after 7 days of repeated injections was very low in all instances. Calculations showed very long turnover times for the two cell populations in control animals (greater than 2 years for endothelium and greater than 3 years for smooth muscle). After 20 and 45 Gy, no significant increase in endothelial proliferation was seen except at 3 weeks. No significant increase in labelling was observed in smooth muscle at any time after irradiation. These labelling data have been compared with the pattern of cell depletion of the irradiated endothelium. It was concluded that the depletion was much earlier than expected for a slowly proliferating tissue, if all the cells were cycling very slowly. Such an early depletion is, however, consistent with cell death resulting from a small proportion of the cells having a short cell cycle. The recovery of the endothelial cell numbers between 9 and 12 months was not accompanied by a rise in the fraction of labelled cells. Its is suggested that repopulation may occur from outside the treated area.