Prolactin levels as a criterion to differentiate between psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and epileptic seizures: A systematic review

@article{Wang2021ProlactinLA,
  title={Prolactin levels as a criterion to differentiate between psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and epileptic seizures: A systematic review},
  author={Yan-Qiu Wang and Yi Wen and Ming-Min Wang and Yi-wei Zhang and Zhi-xu Fang},
  journal={Epilepsy Research},
  year={2021},
  volume={169}
}
OBJECTIVE Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are conversion disorders with functional neurological symptoms that can resemble epileptic seizures (ES). We conducted a systematic review to obtain an overview of the value of prolactin (PRL) levels in the differential diagnosis between PNES and ES. METHODS We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published up to June 4th, 2020. Published studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: original… 
Clinical differentiation of psychogenic non-epileptic seizure: a practical diagnostic approach
Background Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) has long been the counterpart of epileptic seizure (ES). Despite ample of evidence differentiating the two, PNES mistakenly diagnosed as ES was
Serum prolactin level and lactate dehydrogenase activity in patients with epileptic and nonepileptic seizures
TLDR
It is demonstrated that serum LDH activities within 1 hour after the seizure appear to be increased in patients with ES compared with those with NES, suggesting the potential role ofLDH activities as a diagnostic tool in distinction of seizure types, and supports the hypothesis that LDH-antagonists may have a role in the management of seizure and epilepsy.
Research Progress on the Effect of Epilepsy and Antiseizure Medications on PCOS Through HPO Axis
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Monitoring the frequency and duration of epileptic seizures: "A journey through time".
  • A. Benson, A. Shahwan
  • Medicine
    European journal of paediatric neurology : EJPN : official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
  • 2021
TLDR
The various methods of seizure monitoring are reviewed; from home seizure diaries to EEG monitoring to cutting-edge responsive neurostimulation systems.
Clinical utility of serum prolactin and lactate concentrations to differentiate epileptic seizures from non-epileptic attacks in the emergency room
TLDR
Elevated serum PRL with normal serum LAC concentration in patients who have attacks with convulsions suggests convulsive syncope, however, serumLAC concentration is not useful as a routine screening test for attacks without convulsion in the ER.

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TLDR
Elevated serum prolactin assay, when measured in the appropriate clinical setting at 10 to 20 minutes after a suspected event, is a useful adjunct for the differentiation of generalized tonic–clonic or complex partial seizure from psychogenic nonepileptic seizure among adults and older children.
Serum prolactin levels are elevated also after pseudoepileptic seizures
TLDR
The rather limited discriminative power of prolactin measurements makes it of questionable value in discerning between epileptic and pseudo-epileptic seizures.
Serum prolactin levels are elevated also after pseudo-epileptic seizures.
TLDR
The rather limited discriminative power of prolactin measurements makes it of questionable value in discerning between epileptic and pseudo-epileptic seizures.
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TLDR
There was no correlation between the types of seizure and PRL or serum CK levels, and none of the patients diagnosed with PNES showed rise in either of the markers.
Diagnostic value of serum prolactin levels in PNES in the epilepsy monitoring unit
TLDR
Serum prolactin levels do not provide any additional support for distinguishing PNES from ES and should not be obtained routinely in the epilepsy monitoring unit, and add unnecessary blood draws and financial burden for the patients.
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TLDR
Results suggest that neurophysiological characteristics, such as brain activity as visualized by functional MRI, cardiovascular measurements and neuroendocrine functioning, may be abnormal in patients with PNES, and future investigations should elucidate the exact role of neuro Physiological abnormalities in the aetiology of PNES.
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TLDR
Serum levels of prolactin may increase as a consequence of epileptic seizures, and repetitive seizures, more common in status epilepticus, may show a decrease in its postictal release.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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