Progressive Reinvention or Destination Lost? Half a Century of Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

@article{Zilla2020ProgressiveRO,
  title={Progressive Reinvention or Destination Lost? Half a Century of Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering},
  author={Peter Zilla and Manfred Deutsch and Deon Bezuidenhout and Neil Hamer Davies and Timothy Pennel},
  journal={Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine},
  year={2020},
  volume={7}
}
The concept of tissue engineering evolved long before the phrase was forged, driven by the thromboembolic complications associated with the early total artificial heart programs of the 1960s. Yet more than half a century of dedicated research has not fulfilled the promise of successful broad clinical implementation. A historical account outlines reasons for this scientific impasse. For one, there was a disconnect between distinct eras each characterized by different clinical needs and different… 
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