Progressive Powered Lenses: the Minkwitz Theorem

  title={Progressive Powered Lenses: the Minkwitz Theorem},
  author={James E. Sheedy and Charles E. Campbell and Ewen King-Smith and John R. Hayes},
  journal={Optometry and Vision Science},
PURPOSE The Minkwitz theorem, which can be proven to apply to the immediate surface surrounding a line of umbilics, states that astigmatism perpendicular to the line changes twice as quickly as the rate of change of power along the line. [] Key Method Lenses were measured with a Rotlex Class Plus lens analyzer. RESULTS Zone widths in the central region of the Tact lenses exceeded those predicted by the Minkwitz theorem. Above and below this region, zone widths were narrower than predicted. When averaged…
Generalization of the Minkwitz theorem to nonumbilical lines of symmetrical surfaces.
A "generalized Minkwitz theorem" is derived, which indicates that the increase of the astigmatism perpendicular to the principal line depends not only on the power increase, as described by the Minkowitz theorem, but also on theAstigmatism increase along the principalline.
Theoretical and experimental investigation of design for multioptical-axis freeform progressive addition lenses
Preliminary results showed that the approach for the design and fabrication is helpful to advance the design procedure optimization and mass production of PALs in optometry.
Comparison of Three Techniques in Measuring Progressive Addition Lenses
The three measurement methods are comparable for measuring spherical and cylindrical power across PALs and the non-optical method, CMM, can be used to evaluate the optical properties of a PAL by measuring front and back surface height measurements, although its estimates of HOAs are lower than those from the HSWFS.
Comparison of Progressive Addition Lenses by Direct Measurement of Surface Shape
This nonoptical method using a coordinate measuring machine can be used to evaluate a PAL by surface height measurements, with the optical properties directly related to its front and back surface designs.
Parametric Modeling of Free-Form Surfaces for Progressive Addition Lens
Purpose: By the mid-40s, the amplitude of accommodation has declined sufficiently so that most of us can no longer accommodate clearly and comfortably for close tasks. This condition, called
Characterization of the optical properties of progressive addition lenses (PALs) using root mean square of the power error (RMSPE)
Over the past few decades, progressive addition lenses (PALs) have emerged as an effective correction strategy for presbyopic patients. PALs offer a cosmetic and optical advantage to traditional
An Analytical Model Describing Aberrations in the Progression Corridor of Progressive Addition Lenses
A simple analytical model is proposed that confirms that for typical pupil sizes, all higher-order aberrations, including the dominant modes of coma and trefoil, are small enough to render an undisturbed vision in the progression zone.
Proposta para uma viso clnica das lentes progressivas
The study of the progressive addition lens (PAL) under the physiological optics' view concludes that the dioptric values are the principal factor and, the progressive zone secondary and the aa.
Optical performance of progressive addition lenses (PALs) with astigmatic prescription
Significant impacts of astigmatic prescription are revealed, providing evidence for the usefulness of four novel optical metrics sensitive to variation of refractive power across the lens surface of PALs in quantifying the optical performance of Pals for patients with astigmatic prescriptions.
Measurement and Comparison of Progressive Addition Lenses by Three Techniques
Purpose. To measure and evaluate variations in spherical power, astigmatism and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in progressive addition lenses (PALs) by three techniques and to compare their


Progressive addition lenses--matching the specific lens to patient needs.
A Remote Subjective Refractor Employing Continuously Variable Sphere-Cylinder Corrections
At the present time, the preferred method of determining optical corrections suitable for prescribing optical aids such as spectacles is through subjective response of the individual being examined.
Development of variable- focus lenses and a new refractor.
: This paper traces the events that led to the development of the variable-focus lens, the variable-power astigmatic lens, and the principle of remote refraction and "phantom lenses." These
Development of variable- focus lenses and a new refractor.
  • L. W. Alvarez
  • Physics
    Journal of the American Optometric Association
  • 1978
These developments formed the basis for invention of a new subjective refractor-the Vision Analyzer- whose novel design and rapid operation are described.
Über den Flächenastigmatismus Bei Gewissen Symmetrischen Asphären
Als Flachenastigmatismus in einem Punkt einer brechenden aspharischen Flache wird, bis auf einen Faktor, die Differenz der beiden Hauptkrummungen, ausgedruckt in Dioptrien, definiert, Gl. (4). Bringt
Bemerkungen zu Einem Satz Von G. Minkwitz über Den Astigmatismus Asphärischer Flächen
Flachenastigmatismus und mittlere Flachenbrechkraft einer aspharischen brechenden Flache sind durch Differenz und arithmetisches Mittel der Hauptkrummungen im jeweiligen Flachenpunkt definiert. Unter
Bemerkungen uber nabelpunktslinien auf flachenstucken
  • Monatsberichte der deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften
  • 1965