Progress on the breakdown of one-to-one rule in symbiosis of figs and their pollinating wasps

  title={Progress on the breakdown of one-to-one rule in symbiosis of figs and their pollinating wasps},
  author={Jianfeng Huang and Ruilin Xu and Yanqiong Peng},
  journal={Biodiversity Science},
: The fig–fig-pollinating wasp symbiosis provides a model system for investigating the mutualistic interaction between plants and animals. A simple one-to-one rule was proposed to describe the highly spe-cialized reciprocal relationships between figs and their species-specific pollinating fig wasps based on the in-itial studies: each fig tree species is obligatorily pollinated by one fig wasp species, and each wasp species can only reproduce in one fig species. With the deepening of research… 
2 Citations
Asymmetric interactions in fig-fig wasp mutualism
Fig and fig‒pollinating wasps constitute one of the most well-known systems of mutualistic interactions between species. However, interspecific competition and antagonism is increasingly observed in
Research progress of interspecific hybridization in genus Ficus
Investigation of the effect of hybridization on fig biodiversity and the stability of the fig–fig-pollinating wasp mutualism, and exploring hybridization pattern and consequence of the hybrid zone, and the factors that affect the host shift and hybridization, and so on.


Breakdown of the one-to-one rule in Mexican fig-wasp associations inferred by molecular phylogenetic analysis
The results suggest the possible breakdown of the "one-to-one rule" in Mexican fig-wasp associations, the absence of phylogenetic evidence for cospeciation between the Ficus species and its pollinators, and host switching may occur frequently among these pollinating wasps.
The one-to-one species specificity of the Ficus-Agaoninae mutualism: how casual?
An accurate description of the state of knowledge on the exceptions to the one-to-one rule in the different biogeographic regions is given and the relatively high number of breakdowns to the rule, in South-Eastern Asia is discussed.
Pollinator sharing in dioecious figs (Ficus: Moraceae)
Findings point to low rates of pollinator sharing among closely-related dioecious fig species in sympatry, and perhaps lower rates than among monoeciousfigs.
Cryptic species of fig-pollinating wasps: Implications for the evolution of the fig–wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation
Genetic data demonstrates the coexistence of previously undetected cryptic fig wasp species in at least half of the host fig species surveyed, undermining the prevalent notion of strict one-to-one specificity between cospeciating figs and their pollinators and strengthening support for sex allocation theory and the precision of adaptation.
Genome‐wide sequence data suggest the possibility of pollinator sharing by host shift in dioecious figs (Moraceae, Ficus)
The results suggest that the three Taiwanese fig wasp species are a single panmictic population that pollinates three dioecious fig species, which are sympatrically distributed, have large differences in morphology and ecology and are also genetically differentiated.
Complementary fruiting phenologies facilitate sharing of one pollinator fig wasp by two fig trees
Aims Most pollinator fig wasps are host plant specific, with each species only breeding in the figs of one fig tree species, but increasing numbers of species are known to be pollinated by more than
An Extreme Case of Plant–Insect Codiversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps
Biogeographic analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance.
  • W. B.
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1970
The evidence concerning host specificity of fig wasps is evaluated and the evidence concerning such specificity and its occasional breakdown is evaluated.
Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)
It is shown that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa, which could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association.
Exceptions to the one:one relationship between African fig trees and their fig wasp pollinators: possible evolutionary scenarios
Habitat shifts and ecological barriers seem to be the more likely explanations for the evolution of novel fig tree-fig wasp associations, but sympatric and parapatric scenarios cannot be ruled out.