Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonged to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. In the past decades, FXR has been found with important roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis of bile acids, cholesterol, lipids and carbohydrates. Recent studies further demonstrate the potential protective effect of FXR against metabolic diseases, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In addition, FXR plays an essential role in liver regeneration, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the role of FXR in the development of tumor is still obscure and even with discrepancy. This article reviews the function of FXR in metabolic regulation and recent progress in basic, clinical and pharmacological researches related to tumor cell proliferation involving FXR.