INTRODUCTION Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women that causes personal distress and has negative effects on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. DEFINITIONS The female sexual response cycle consists of three phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm, and is initiated by non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic, e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and nitric oxide, neurotransmitters that maintain vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. Furthermore, hormonal status may influence female sexual function. For the diagnosis of FSD, a detailed history should be taken initially, followed by a physical examination and laboratory studies. CONCLUSION Due to the fact that there has been little research and attention on FSD, our knowledge in this field is quite limited and there is still no approved therapy. Future advances in evaluation and treatment of female sexual problems are forthcoming.