Progress in Conjugated Polyindoles: Synthesis, Polymerization Mechanisms, Properties, and Applications

  title={Progress in Conjugated Polyindoles: Synthesis, Polymerization Mechanisms, Properties, and Applications},
  author={Weiqiang Zhou and Jingkun Xu},
  journal={Polymer Reviews},
  pages={248 - 275}
ABSTRACT Similarly to polyanilines, polypyrroles, and polythiophenes, polyindoles belonging to the fused-ring family have emerged in the past several decades as promising materials due to their unique physical and electrochemical properties. To date, polyindoles have been studied in over 200 scientific publications. These studies revealed that the materials based on polyindoles could have an important influence on electrochromic devices, sensors, catalysis and electro-catalysis, anticorrosion… Expand
Critical analysis of polyindole and its composites in supercapacitor application
Polyindole-based hybrid composites are being recognized as a promising candidate to be used in energy storage field along with other conjugated organic polymers. Polyindoles themselves are affectedExpand
Green approach to fabricate Polyindole composite nanofibers for energy and sensor applications
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Polyindole batteries and supercapacitors
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Abstract Stereoregular fused thiophenes (SFTs: especially thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT) and dithieo[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]thiophene (DTT)), as stable conjugated structures deriving from thiophene ringExpand
Synthesis, Thermal Properties, and Rheological Characteristics of Indole-Based Aromatic Polyesters
The synthesis and characterization of new indole-based dicarboxylate monomers with only aromatic ester bonds are described, which can improve the thermal stability and glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the resulting polyesters. Expand
Electrorheology of polyindole
Abstract Polyindole particles were prepared by the oxidative polymerization, where ammonium peroxydisulfate was used as an oxidant at several mole ratios to indole. Prepared sphericalExpand
Transport studies on one-pot chemically synthesized conducting polyindole in aqueous solution
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Electrochemical capacitive performance of free-standing polyindole film and effect of introducing alkyl chain connecting two indoles
Polyindole (PIn), combining the good properties of polypyrrole and poly(para-phenylene), has been gained significant attention. But the capacitive performances of PIn and its derivativesExpand
High performance electrochromic poly(5-cyanoindole)/TiO2 nanocomposite material for intelligent supercapacitor
Abstract A new type of dual-functional poly(5-cyanoindole) (P5ICN)/TiO2 nanocomposites with porous network structure is prepared by combining the hydrothermal synthesis and electrodeposition. Due toExpand
Environmentally benign production of cupric oxide nanoparticles and various utilizations of their polymeric hybrids in different technologies
Abstract Cupric oxide (CuO) is an affordable and valuable semiconductor material with brilliant physiochemical features such as antibacterial, antioxidant, low-cost, as well as non-toxicity. Also,Expand


The physicochemical properties of polyindole / thiol composites
We synthesized the polyindole (PI) and poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (pDMcT) by chemical oxidation method. The polymerization of PI and pDMcT was confirmed by FT-IR. We have measured theExpand
Luminescent properties of pyrrole-based heterocyclic conjugated polymers
Pyrrole-based heterocyclic conjugated polymers such as polyindole derivatives were synthesized for the purpose of novel luminescent materials. Polyindole homopolymers and copolymers withExpand
Effect of synthetic route on structural and morphological properties of poly(thiophene-co-indole)
In this study, homopolymers of polythiophene (PT), polyindole (PIN) and their composites and copolymers were synthesized by chemical polymerization and were characterized by FTIR and UV-spectroscopy,Expand
One-pot synthesis of Polyindole–Au nanocomposite and its nanoscale electrical properties
Abstract Nanosized gold (Au) and polyindole (PIn) composite was prepared via in-situ polymerization of indole, using metal salt chloro-auric acid as an oxidant, in a microemulsion system. TheExpand
Synthesis and characterization of a novel composite: Polyindole included in nanostructured Al-MCM-41 material
Abstract Polyindole/MCM-41 composite material was prepared from a mesoporous aluminosilicate, Na-AlMCM-41 used as host, by an oxidative in situ polymerization of pre-adsorbed indole, employing Cl 3Expand
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyindole–NiO-Based Composite Polymer Electrolyte with LiClO4
There has been an increasing interest in synthesizing the novel composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) for use in lithium batteries in recent years. This paper describes the preparation andExpand
Novel polyindole film prepared via the Meisenheimer complex of indole with trinitrofluorenone
Abstract The first electropolymerization of a Meisenheimer σ -complex of indole with 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF) has been reported. Linear sweep voltammetry and FT-IR analyses revealed that theExpand
Light-Emitting Polythiophenes†
Polythiophenes are one of the most important classes of conjugated polymers, with a wide range of applications, such as conducting films, electrochromics, and field-effect transistors, which haveExpand
Polymerization mechanism and physicochemical properties of electrochemically prepared polyindole tetrafluoroborate
Polyindole tetrafluoroborate [(PI)BF 4 ] was obtained from a acetonitrile/benzonitrile solution containing 0.2 M indole and 0.1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate, supplying a potential of 0.7 V.Expand
Preparation and SEESR-spectroscopic investigations of indole/pyrrole copolymers in aprotic medium
Abstract Indole and pyrrole solutions have been mixed in different ratios and oxidized under anodic conditions on Pt surface in acetonitrile/0.1 N LiClO 4 solution. The electrocopolymerizationExpand