Progress and prospects in rat genetics: a community view

  title={Progress and prospects in rat genetics: a community view},
  author={Timothy J. Aitman and John Kenneth Critser and Edwin Cuppen and Anna F. Dominiczak and Xos{\'e} M. Fern{\'a}ndez-Su{\'a}rez and Jonathan Flint and Dominique Gauguier and Aron M. Geurts and Michael Gould and Peter C. Harris and Rikard Holmdahl and Norbert Hubner and Zsuzsanna Izsv{\'a}k and Howard J. Jacob and Takashi Kuramoto and Anne E. Kwitek and Anna Marrone and Tomoji Mashimo and Carol Moreno and John J. Mullins and Linda J. Mullins and Tomas P. Olsson and Michal Pravenec and Lela K. Riley and Kathrin Saar and Tadao Serikawa and James D Shull and Claude Szpirer and Simon N. Twigger and Birger Voigt and Kim C. Worley},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
The rat is an important system for modeling human disease. Four years ago, the rich 150-year history of rat research was transformed by the sequencing of the rat genome, ushering in an era of exceptional opportunity for identifying genes and pathways underlying disease phenotypes. Genome-wide association studies in human populations have recently provided a direct approach for finding robust genetic associations in common diseases, but identifying the precise genes and their mechanisms of… 

A RATional choice for translational research?

A new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, ‘Spotlight on Rat: Translational Impact’ is introduced, providing a summary of the articles published in this launch issue and a flavour of what's to come, as well as highlighting the impact rat models have made and continue to make on understanding human disease.

Rat models of human diseases and related phenotypes: a systematic inventory of the causative genes

Over 350 rat genes have been identified as underlying diseases or playing a key role in critical biological processes that are altered in diseases, thereby providing a rich resource of disease models and an inventory of these disease genes.

The emerging role for rat models in gene discovery

The rat models, bioinformatics tools, and technologies that are changing the landscape of translational research are outlined and a perspective on how rat models will continue to positively impact biomedical research is provided.

The future of model organisms in human disease research

The direct discovery of disease genes and variants in humans has been revolutionized, first by genome-wide association studies and now by whole-genome sequencing, and it is now much easier to directly identify potential disease genes in humans.

Rat Genome Mapping and Genomics

Several rat genes have now been identified that underlie complex diseases and remarkably, these results have been translated to the human in a significant proportion of cases, leading to the identification of novel human disease susceptibility genes and also suggesting new therapeutic approaches.

Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the most comprehensive site for genetic, genomic and phenotype data for Rattus norvegicus, a leading animal model for disease-, drug- and toxicity-related research.

Rat Genome Database: a unique resource for rat, human, and mouse quantitative trait locus data.

The rat has been widely used as a disease model in a laboratory setting, resulting in an abundance of genetic and phenotype data from a wide variety of studies. These data can be found at the Rat



Functional genomics and rat models.

The role the rat will play in annotating the genome in the functional genomics era is focused on, as the most widely studied experimental animal model for biomedical research.

SNP and haplotype mapping for genetic analysis in the rat

A survey of genetic variation based on almost 3 million newly identified SNPs is reported, providing a detailed SNP map and demonstrating its utility for mapping of quantitative trait loci in the laboratory rat.

Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

This first comprehensive analysis of the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain is reported, which is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution.

Generation of gene knockouts and mutant models in the laboratory rat by ENU-driven target-selected mutagenesis

Robust, automated, and scaleable reverse genetic methodology based on ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea)-driven target-selected mutagenesis allows for the systematic generation of knockout and protein function altering alleles in the rat.

Integrated transcriptional profiling and linkage analysis for identification of genes underlying disease

This work mapped cis- and trans-regulatory control elements for expression of thousands of genes across the genome in the BXH/HXB panel of rat recombinant inbred strains and generated a data set of 73 candidate genes for hypertension that merit testing in human populations.

Distribution and functional impact of DNA copy number variation in the rat

The functional relationship of CNVs underlying 22 expression quantitative trait loci in rat makes the rat an excellent model for studying phenotypic effects of structural variation in relation to human complex traits and disease.

The Rat Genome Database, update 2007—Easing the path from disease to data and back again

A number of papers are published that provide additional information on the ontology annotations and the tools at RGD for data mining and analysis to better enable researchers to fully utilize the database.

Rat Phenome Project: the untapped potential of existing rat strains.

Large-scale, high-throughput screening data that have already been collected for 54 rat strains are reported, allowing investigators to explore the relationship between several rat strains, to identify new rat models, and to select the most suitable strains for specific experiments.

What everybody should know about the rat genome and its online resources

The current status of the rat genome sequence is described and the plans for its impending 'upgrade' are described, including the new SNP views at Ensembl and the key online resources providing access to therat genome.

A radiation hybrid map of the rat genome containing 5,255 markers

A whole-genome radiation hybrid panel was used to construct a high-resolution map of the rat genome based on microsatellite and gene markers, described here for the first time, allowing the construction of detailed rat-mouse and rat-human comparative maps and illustrating the power of the RH approach for comparative mapping.