Progress Report on Basic Classification

  title={Progress Report on Basic Classification},
  author={Herbert Faulkner Copeland},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={340 - 361}
  • H. F. Copeland
  • Published 1 September 1947
  • Biology
  • The American Naturalist
THIS paper presents the results of study of the primary classification of organisms, the system of kingdoms, as continued beyond my previous discussion of the subject (1938). The present contribution was read and discussed at a meeting of the Western Society of Naturalists and again by a group called together by Dr. S. F. Light, of the University of California. The participants on these occasions showed a gratifying interest. I did not receive, and must not convey, the impression that the… 
The Kingdoms of Organisms
A basic taxonomy of three kingdoms Mychota, Animalia, and Plantae is supported, where the intergrades between the latter two are treated not as defects of the classification but rather as the inevitable result of common ancestry and separation by a process of evolution.
Protozoa, protista, protoctista: What's in a name?
This paper focuses on the uneasy taxonomic and phylogenetic position of the unicellular eukaryotes with respect to the animal and plant kingdoms.
Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms.
It is proposed that plants be assigned to seven kingdoms, subordinate to the superkingdoms Procaryota and Eucaryota which are based on the procaryotic and eucaryotic types of cellular organization.
HAECKEL ' S Kingdom Protista and Current Concepts in Systematic
  • Biology
  • 2006
The author briefly presents his own skeletal arrangement of high-level protistan taxa that may be an improvement over those in the recent literature, with emphasis on the idea that the diversity of the protists is too great to be confined to a single kingdom and, thus, that their species require dispersal throughout all of the several kingdoms of the eukaryotic biotic world that are becoming widely recognized today.
Is It Kingdoms or Domains? Confusion & Solutions
The purposes of the present paper do not include repetition of a voluminous literature on the details of putative kingdom categories, but are to suggest a system of three domains over the five-kingdom concept.
Are red algae plants
Submerging Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia and Fungi into Eukarya would provide a more natural framework for the eventual resolution of whether red algae are plants or protists.
Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.
The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogenetic
Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.
  • J. M. Scamardella
  • Biology
    International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • 1999
In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification and introduced concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals.


A Manual of the Infusoria
  • History
  • 1881
THIS sometime promised work has now advanced so far in its publication as the third part; when completed it will merit a somewhat lengthened notice, as the most important work on the subject which
Genera plantarui secuidum ordines natIrirales disposita
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    The Biology of the Protozoa." Philadelphia arid New York
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    Jahrb . wiss
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    Dictionnaiire Classique d 'histoire iaturelle