Programming a computer for playing chess

  title={Programming a computer for playing chess},
  author={Claude E. Shannon},
  • C. Shannon
  • Published 1950
  • Materials Science, Computer Science
This paper is concerned with the problem of constructing a computing routine or “program” for a modern general purpose computer which will enable it to play chess. [...] Key Method(2) Machines for designing relay and switching circuits. (3) Machines which will handle routing of telephone calls based on the individual circumstances rather than by fixed patterns. (4) Machines for performing symbolic (non-numerical) mathematical operations. (5) Machines capable of translating…Expand
COKO III: The Cooper-Kozdrowicki Chess Program
The “tree-searching catastrophe” is discussed as a natural phenomenon that plagues selective tree searching for both man and machine and so-called “interminimal-game communication’ is considered as anatural, powerful procedure frequently used by humans to guide their selective search and as a point of emphasis for future development. Expand
Young animals play games in order to prepare themselves for the business of serious living, without getting hurt in the training period. Game-playing on computers serves a similar function. It canExpand
Programming Computers to Play Games
Programming computers to play games is a stage in the understanding of the methods that must be employed for the machine simulation of intellectual behavior and studies proved that it is possible to devise learning schemes that will outperform an average person and that such learning schemes may someday be economically feasible as applied to real-life situations. Expand
Statistics for the chess computer and the factor of mobility
  • E. Slater
  • Computer Science
  • Trans. IRE Prof. Group Inf. Theory
  • 1953
Shannon (1950a) has argued that the problem of providing a programme for a chess-playing computer is of theoretical interest, and its use might lead to a wide range of practical developments. TheExpand
Computer Chess: Ten Years of Significant Progress
There have been a number of new developments including special-purpose hardware, parallel search on multiprocessing systems, windowing techniques, and increased use of transposition tables since 1979, the chapter describes. Expand
The Historical Development of Computer Chess and its Impact on Artificial Intelligence
  • David Heath, D. Allum
  • Computer Science
  • Deep Blue Versus Kasparov: The Significance for Artificial Intelligence
  • 1997
The historical development of computer chess is reviewed and its impact on the concept of intelligence is discussed and a popular benchmark test for determining intelligence is the Turing test. Expand
Games, computers, and artificial intelligence
In the 1970s and 1980s, computer-games research concentrated on chess and the socalled brute-force approach, which meant a prolonged period of games-development activity largely devoted to building faster search engines, at the expense of doing mainstream research. Expand
COKO III: the Cooper-Koz chess program
Specific chess algorithms are described which could be used as a command structure by anyone desiring to do some chess program experimentation and a comparison is made of some mysterious actions of human players and COKO III. Expand
Computer Chess: Algorithms and Heuristics for a Deep Look into the Future
The parallelization that has been developed by us has been used successfully in the chess program Zugzwang even on massively parallel hardware. Expand
What Computer Chess Still Has to Teach Us: The Game That Will Not Go
There are reasons to believe that chess still has some things to teach us not only about computation and its limits but also about the human mind and how it probably works. Expand


Les Automates, La Natura
  • Chess the easy Way,
  • 1942