Programmed Death Phenomena: From Organelle to Organism

@article{Skulachev2002ProgrammedDP,
  title={Programmed Death Phenomena: From Organelle to Organism},
  author={Vladimir P. Skulachev},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2002},
  volume={959}
}
  • V. Skulachev
  • Published 1 April 2002
  • Biology
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Programmed death phenomena appear to be inherent not only in living cells (apoptosis), but also in subcellular organelles (e.g., self‐elimination of mitochondria, called mitoptosis), organs (organoptosis), and even whole organisms (phenoptosis). In all these cases, the “Samurai law of biology”—it is better to die than to be wrong—seems to be operative. The operation of this law helps complicated living systems avoid the risk of ruin when a system of lower hierarchic position makes a significant… 
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