Program development by stepwise refinement

  title={Program development by stepwise refinement},
  author={N. Wirth},
  journal={Commun. ACM},
  • N. Wirth
  • Published 1983
  • Computer Science
  • Commun. ACM
  • The creative activity of programming—to be distinguished from coding—is usually taught by examples serving to exhibit certain techniques. It is here considered as a sequence of design decisions concerning the decomposition of tasks into subtasks and of data into data structures. The process of successive refinement of specifications is illustrated by a short but nontrivial example, from which a number of conclusions are drawn regarding the art and the instruction of programming. 
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