Kallikrein-related peptidases, a subgroup of the serine protease enzyme family, are considered important prognostic biomarkers in cancer. In the present study, we sought to determine the prognostic value of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) in ovarian cancer using a novel method of compartmentalized in situ protein analysis. A tissue array composed of 150 advanced stage ovarian cancers, uniformly treated with surgical debulking followed by platinum-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy, was constructed. For evaluation of KLK6 protein expression, we used an immunofluorescence-based method of automated in situ quantitative measurement of protein analysis (AQUA). Mean follow-up time of the cohort was 34.35 months. One hundred and thirty-five of 150 cases had sufficient tissue for AQUA analysis. In univariate survival analysis, low tumor KLK6 expression was associated with better outcome for overall survival over 3 years (P = 0.019). There was no association between tumor KLK6 expression and progression-free survival (P = 0.128). In multivariate survival analysis, adjusting for well-characterized prognostic variables, low tumor KLK6 expression level was one of the most significant predictor variable for overall survival (95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.50; P = 0.009). High tumor KLK6 protein expression is associated with inferior patient outcome in ovarian cancer. KLK6 may represent a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.