Neuropsychological assessment of the orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
Among 40 patients who developed total anosmia as a result of closed-head injury, virtually all had major vocational problems during the two or more years after being medically cleared to return to work. None had major motor or sensory deficits, and the majority had above average intelligence and memory. However, most demonstrated psychosocial deficits of a type typically associated with damage to orbital frontal cortex. Vocational outcome for patients with partial anosmia was more variable with only about half having manifest vocational problems.