Arf6, RalA, and BIRC5 protein expression in nonsmall cell lung cancer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of survivin, cyclin D1, integrin beta1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor on survival of patients with small adenocarcinoma of the lung. Seventy-two patients with pathologic stage I resected tumors <2 cm in diameter were entered into the study. Each patient underwent curative surgical resection for lung cancer between July 1992 and November 1999. The resected tumors were subjected to immunostaining for each gene. Thirty-five, 26, 6, and 16 patients had tumors with >10% survivin-, >20% cyclin D1-, >10% integrin beta1-, and >10% VEGF-positive cells, respectively. When the survival of 72 patients was compared according to each gene expression, the overall survival of patients with positive expression of survivin, cyclin D1, and integrin [beta]1 was significantly worse than that of individuals whose tumors had negative expression of each gene. By multivariate analysis controlling for each gene expression, no gene expression was an independent marker of poor prognosis, however, the overall survival of the complex gene expression (2 or more gene-positive) group (n = 35) was significantly worse than that of 0 or 1 gene-positive group (n = 37; log-rank test, P = 0.0011; Wilcoxon test, P = 0.0011). When the association between survival and pathologic factors, including lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, type of bronchioalveolar carcinoma, and complex gene positive expression was analyzed, only complex gene-positive expression was found to be a significant independent factor (hazard ratio = 0.085, P = 0.0299). It can be concluded that multiple increased expression of oncogene is a poor prognostic factor in patients with small adenocarcinoma of the lung.