Thioredoxin-1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-9 and interferon-γ expression in the neoplastic cells and macrophages of Hodgkin lymphoma: clinicopathologic correlations and potential prognostic implications.
BACKGROUND Advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is curable by conventional chemotherapy in 60--70% of patients. The pretreatment identification of a sizeable subgroup of patients with sufficiently low failure-free survival (FFS) to be eligible for investigational treatment is necessary. OBJECTIVES To determine the prognostic significance of the number of involved sites (NIS) in patients with advanced HL and its relationship to the International Prognostic Score (IPS). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with advanced HL, defined as Ann Arbor stage (AAS) IB, IIB, III or IV, treated with anthracycline-based regimens. The end-point was FFS. RESULTS We identified 277 patients with a median age of 32 yr (14--78), 57% of whom were males. AAS was I in 4% of patients, II in 29%, III in 38% and IV in 29%. B-symptoms were recorded in 81%. Most patients had nodular sclerosis (64%) and mixed cellularity (26%) histology. IPS was greater-than-or-equals 3 in 44% of 242 evaluable patients. The NIS was greater-than-or-equals 5 in 32% of the patients and 20% of all patients had both greater-than-or-equals 5 involved sites and IPS greater-than-or-equals 3. The 10-yr FFS was 67%, being 76% vs. 50% for patients with less-than-or-equals 4 vs. greater-than-or-equals 5 involved sites (P < 0.0001). The NIS (greater-than-or-equal 5), AAS IV and anemia were independent predictors of FFS in multivariate analysis. The NIS remained significant along with IPS, when the latter was included in the analysis. Patients with greater-than-or-equals 5 involved sites and IPS greater-than-or-equals 3 had 10-yr FFS overall, and relapse-free survival of 41%, 45% and 49%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The NIS was associated with FFS in advanced HL, was independent of IPS, and led to the identification of a sizeable subgroup of patients with 10-yr FFS of approximately 40%. This factor should be evaluated during the development of prognostic systems.