PURPOSE To evaluate the long-term clinical results after isolated infrapopliteal balloon angioplasty for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. METHODS Between April 2004 and October 2010, 406 CLI consecutive patients (275 men; mean age 71±11 years) who underwent balloon angioplasty for primary treatment of isolated infrapopliteal artery lesions in 465 limbs were enrolled in a multicenter, non-randomized registry. The patients were classified into 2 groups, those on hemodialysis (242 patients with 283 limbs) and those not (164 patients with 182 limbs), for a retrospective comparative study of clinical outcomes [target extremity revascularization (TER), major amputation (MA), and survival] at an average 3.4±1.9 years. RESULTS Freedom from TER at 5 years was lower in the hemodialysis patients (48.3% vs. 65.4% in non-hemodialysis patients, p<0.001); 9.9% of hemodialysis patients had undergone bypass surgery in contrast to 3.8% of non-hemodialysis patients (p=0.011). Freedom from MA was 77.1% in hemodialysis patients and 85.1% in non-hemodialysis patients at 5 years (p=0.058). Hemodialysis patients had significantly poorer survival (24.3% vs. 48.0%, p<0.001) and MA-free survival (20.8% vs. 42.9%, p<0.001) than non-hemodialysis patients at 5 years. Multivariate predictors of MA or all-cause death were non-ambulatory status (p<0.001), gangrene (p=0.036), and higher C-reactive protein levels (p=0.048). CONCLUSION Although hemodialysis patients have a higher TER rate compared to the general population, the long-term limb salvage rate after balloon angioplasty for isolated infrapopliteal lesions is acceptable; nevertheless, the MA-free survival rate is very low.