Progestogen therapies: differences in clinical effects?

  title={Progestogen therapies: differences in clinical effects?},
  author={Inka Wiegratz and Herbert Kuhl},
  journal={Trends in Endocrinology \& Metabolism},
  • I. WiegratzH. Kuhl
  • Published 1 August 2004
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism

Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system.

The utility and safety of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy has recently been put into question by large clinical trials, and the recognition that progesterone is synthesized by neurons and glial cells requires a reevaluation of hormonal aging.

Combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives

A variety of innovations have been developed since combined hormonal contraceptives were first available in the late 1950s, including changes in drug components, doses used, and the temporal sequencing of exposure to drugs.

Certain Progestins Prevent the Enhancing Effect of 17β-Estradiol on NO-Mediated Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by Endothelial Cells

Certain progestins, including MPA, attenuate the 17β-E–induced NO-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation by endothelial cells through preventing both eNOS and GTPCH I expression most likely via activation of glucocorticoid receptors.

Effects of estradiol with micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on risk markers for breast cancer in postmenopausal monkeys

Oral micronized progesterone has a more favorable effect on risk biomarkers for postmenopausal breast cancer than medroxyprogesterone acetate, and both progestogens significantly attenuated E2 effects on body weight, endometrium, and the TFF1 marker of estrogen receptor activity in the breast.

The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on estrogen-dependent risks and benefits – an attempt to interpret the Women's Health Initiative results

  • H. KuhlJ. Stevenson
  • Medicine, Biology
    Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • 2006
In contrast, CEE alone reduced non-significantly the risk of CHD in women aged 50–59 years, suggesting that primary prevention is possible if estrogen replacement therapy is initiated early.

Ethynilestradiol 20 mcg plus Levonorgestrel 100 mcg: Clinical Pharmacology

Overall, EE20/LNG100 combination is safe and well tolerated, and in several studies the incidence of adverse events in the treated group was comparable to that of the placebo group.



The Role and Use of Progestogens

Based upon the available literature, it is believed that the enthusiasm for continuous combined therapy is premature and caution is urged in its use until further, more conclusive, data become available.

Effects of progestogens on haemostasis.

  • H. Kuhl
  • Medicine, Biology
  • 1996

New progestogens in oral contraception.

The effects of progestins on vasomotor flushes.

  • I. Schiff
  • Medicine
    The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • 1982
It is hoped that as more physicians begin to add medroxyprogesterone acetate to the estrogen regimen to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, it might be that a lower dose of estrogen will be necessary to relieve flushes.

Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Endometrial Histology in Postmenopausal Women: The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial

Combining CEE with cyclic or continuous MPA or cyclic MP protected the endometrium from hyperplastic changes associated with estrogen-only therapy.