Progesterone – promoter or inhibitor of breast cancer

  title={Progesterone – promoter or inhibitor of breast cancer},
  author={Herbert Kuhl and Hermann P. G. Schneider},
  pages={54 - 68}
Abstract Based on the results of a French cohort of postmenopausal women, it has been claimed that micronized progesterone does not enhance breast cancer risk. The impact of reproductive factors on breast cancer risk and a high prevalence of occult breast carcinomas at the time of menopause suggest an involvement of endogenous progesterone in the development of breast cancer. High mammographic density in the luteal phase and during treatment with estrogen/progestogen combinations reflect a… 

Progestogens and Breast Cancer

  • E. Peer
  • Medicine, Biology
    Progestogens in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 2021
There is growing interest to clarify the possible mechanisms by which different progestogens influence the breast and might be involved in the causation and development of breast cancer.

Classical and Non-Classical Progesterone Signaling in Breast Cancers

This review attempts to understand the classical and non-classical signaling role of P4 in breast cancers because both nuclear and membrane receptors could become viable therapeutic options for breast cancer patients.

Progesterone suppresses triple-negative breast cancer growth and metastasis to the brain via membrane progesterone receptor α

It is demonstrated that membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) is expressed in TNBC tissues and the expression level of mPRα is negatively associated with the TNM stage, which provides evidence of the anti-neoplastic effects of progester one-mPR α pathway in the treatment of human TNBC.

Reproductive epidemiology of glial tumors may reveal novel treatments: high-dose progestins or progesterone antagonists as endocrino-immune modifiers against glioma

It is proposed that progesterone analogues strongly deserve to be investigated in experimental models of glioblastoma alone and in combination with immunostimulating agents and certain progestins were reported to stimulate meningioma growth in anecdotal reports, but same agents at much higher doses reduced mening ioma cell proliferation in pilot clinical studies.

Model of tumor-associated epigenetic changes of HER2, ER, and PgR expression in invasive breast cancer phenotypes

The presented model suggests that both luminal A and luminal B tumor types are heterogeneous regarding the steroid receptor expression, and some tumors have functional and some have dysfunctional steroid receptors.

The Effect of Menopausal Hormone Therapies on Breast Cancer: Avoiding the Risk.

Insights into the Behavior of Triple-Negative MDA-MB-231 Breast Carcinoma Cells Following the Treatment with 17β-Ethinylestradiol and Levonorgestrel

This study reveals that the active ingredients of modern OCs, 17β-Ethinylestradiol, Levonorgestrel, and their combination induce differential effects in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, suggesting a potential anticancer effect.

Menopausal hormone therapy: a better and safer future

  • D. Davey
  • Medicine
    Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • 2018
Investigation into the use of intrauterine levonorgestrel-releasing devices (LNG-IUDs), which are an attractive form of MHT in perimenopausal women, providing contraception and reducing uterine bleeding, although the risk of breast cancer with LNG- IUDs requires clarification.

Menopausal hormone therapy: oncological risks

An analysis of the literature over the past 10 years on the relationship of menopausal hormone therapy and the risks of developing malignant diseases in women, including risk factors, such as mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes is presented.



Micronized progesterone and its impact on the endometrium and breast vs. progestogens

  • A. Gompel
  • Medicine, Biology
    Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • 2012
Micronized progesterone does not increase cell proliferation in breast tissue in postmenopausal women compared with synthetic medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and experimental evidence suggests that the opposing effects of MPA and micronization on breast tissue are related to the non-specific effects ofMPA.

Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Breast Cancer Risk

  • I. RussoJ. Russo
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
  • 2011
Higher levels of hCG during the first trimester of pregnancy have been associated with a reduction in maternal breast cancer incidence after age 50, and this signature is indicative of a reduced breast cancer risk and serves as a molecular biomarker of differentiation for evaluating the potential use of chemopreventive agents.

Breast cancer tissue estrogens and their manipulation with aromatase inhibitors and inactivators

  • J. Geisler
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • 2003

Molecular basis of pregnancy-induced breast cancer protection

  • J. RussoG. Balogh I. Russo
  • Biology
    European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation
  • 2006
Evidence is shown that the breast tissue of post menopausal parous women has had a shifting of stem cell 1 to stem cell 2 with a genomic signature different from similar structures derived from postmenopausal nulliparous women that have stem cell1.

Breast and Ovarian Cancers

The authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas, focusing on two groups of proteoglycia, the transmembrane syndecans and the lipid-anchored glypicans.

Hormones and progeny of breast tumor cells

Based on immunocytochemical observations, the most likely target cell of malignant transformation is the Ck18/18-positive and ER-negative transient cell of normal breast epithelium, and this mechanism may assist in developing appropriate means of breast cancer prevention.

Steroid Receptors and Cell Cycle in Normal Mammary Epithelium

Challenges for the future include determining which of the candidates identified as being mediators of the effects of E2 are physiologically and clinically relevant as well as finding out how ERα-containing cells become proliferative during tumorigenesis, could greatly increase understanding of the factors controlling mammary gland development and the processes leading to cancer formation.

Estrogen-progestagen menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: does delay from menopause onset to treatment initiation influence risks?

It is suggested that, for some EP-MHT, the timing of treatment initiation transiently modulates the risk of breast cancer and that, when initiated close to menopause, even short durations of use are associated with an increased breast cancer risk.