Professor's little helper

  title={Professor's little helper},
  author={Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian and Sharon Morein-Zamir},
The use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by both ill and healthy individuals raises ethical questions that should not be ignored, argue Barbara Sahakian and Sharon Morein-Zamir. The idea that a drug or potion can enhance cognitive performance is not new — strong coffee to stave off sleep, something stronger to stimulate creativity. What is new is the array of drugs, developed to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, behavioural problems and brain injury, that can boost brainpower in a healthy… 
The ethics of neuroenhancement.
Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement
Some of the evidence in both neuropsychiatric and healthy individuals is reviewed and the implications such research can have for society are discussed.
Non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement
Just How Cognitive Is “Cognitive Enhancement”? On the Significance of Emotions in University Students' Experiences with Study Drugs
Findings from qualitative research with nonmedical users indicate that stimulants’ effects on users’ emotions and feelings are an important contributor toUsers’ perceptions of improved academic performance.
Lifestyle use of drugs by healthy people for enhancing cognition, creativity, motivation and pleasure
The increasing use of cognitive enhancers by healthy individuals raises safety, ethical and regulatory concerns, which should not be ignored, and understanding the short‐ and long‐term consequences of the use of NPS could promote more effective prevention and harm reduction measures.
Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?
The assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users.
The Ethics of Neuroenhancement: Smart Drugs, Competition and Society
The authors draw on an 'Ethics of Constraint' framework, arguing that widespread off-label use of smart drugs bears the risk of negative neural/behavioral consequences for the individual that might, in the long run, be accompanied by changing social value orientations for the worse.
Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers
It is maintained that PCE present typical, or at least not rare, properties and the issue of fairness due to “unenhanced” people as well as the potentially dysfunctional social consequences of an undisclosed PCE use are considered.
Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind.


Neurocognitive enhancement: what can we do and what should we do?
The goal is to review the state of the art in neurocognitive enhancement, its attendant social and ethical problems, and the ways in which society can address these problems.
A review of the effects of modafinil on cognition in schizophrenia.
Initial findings indicate that modafinil may lead to better executive functioning and attentional performance in patients with schizophrenia and suggest that patient characteristics such as overall current cognitive functioning levels, genetic polymorphisms, and medication status may be important mediators for the effectiveness of modafInil.
Effects of methylphenidate on spatial working memory and planning in healthy young adults
The results of this study are consistent with a hypothesis that methylphenidate influences performance in two conflicting ways; enhancing executive aspects of spatial function on novel tasks but impairing previously established performance.
Modafinil Improves Cognition and Attentional Set Shifting in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia
Modafinil had some cognitive enhancing properties in schizophrenia similar to those observed in healthy adults and adult patients with ADHD, and may have potential as an important therapy for cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia, particularly because of its beneficial effects on attentional set shifting.
Effects of stimulant medication on growth rates across 3 years in the MTA follow-up.
Stimulant-naïve school-age children with Combined type attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were, as a group, larger than expected from norms before treatment but show stimulant-related decreases in growth rates after initiation of treatment, which appeared to reach asymptotes within 3 years without evidence of growth rebound.
Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment
Part I: The Nature of ADHD. Barkley, History. Barkley, Primary Symptoms, Diagnostic Criteria, Prevalence, and Gender Differences. Barkley, Associated Cognitive, Developmental, and Health Problems.
The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2002.
The indirect excess cost due to unemployment is the largest component of overall schizophrenia excess annual costs.
Schizophr. Res
  • Schizophr. Res
  • 1995