Assessment of professional behaviour (PB) is increasingly receiving attention in undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. Its aim is to prevent later inappropriate behaviour and to strengthen appropriate behaviour by self-reflection and feedback. Assessment should start early in the curriculum and be repeated frequently, preferably by different assessors in differing educational situations, and with longitudinal follow-up. The consequences of the assessment as well as any agreements reached, must be clearly documented. If remediation of inappropriate behaviour is unsuccessful, a consilium abeundi, i.e. a recommendation to leave the programme, should be discussed with the student. The Dutch Higher Education and Scientific Research Act (WHW) does not provide for denying students access to educational activities and exams after completing the first year. However, the new Higher Education and Research Act (WHOO), which has yet not been implemented, will provide for obligatory cessation of studies.