Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems

  title={Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems},
  author={David Tilman and David A. Wedin and Johannes M.H. Knops},
THE functioning and sustainability of ecosystems may depend on their biological diversity1–8. Elton's9 hypothesis that more diverse ecosystems are more stable has received much attention1,3,6,7,10–14, but Darwin's proposal6,15 that more diverse plant communities are more productive, and the related conjectures4,5,16,17 that they have lower nutrient losses and more sustainable soils, are less well studied4–6,8,17,18. Here we use a well-replicated field experiment, in which species diversity was… 
Biodiversity loss in grasslands : consequences for ecosystem functioning and interactions with above- and belowground organisms
It is argued that a combined approach, using interactions between changes in plant diversity and multiple 'drivers of plant diversity' (both biotic and abiotic) is needed to fully understand plant community dynamics.
Diversity Enhances NPP, N Retention, and Soil Microbial Diversity in Experimental Urban Grassland Assemblages
It is indicated that plant diversity impacts multiple functions that are important in urban ecosystems; therefore, further tests of urban grassland biodiversity should be examined in situ to determine the feasibility of manipulating plant diversity as an explicit landscape design and function trait.
Complementary effects of species and genetic diversity on productivity and stability of sown grasslands
It is suggested that taxonomic and genetic diversity can play complementary roles when it comes to optimizing livestock fodder production in managed grasslands, and that both levels of diversity should be considered in plant breeding programmes designed to boost the productivity and resilience of managed Grasslands in the face of increasing environmental hazards.
Relationship and its ecological significance between plant species diversity and ecosystem function of soil conservation in semi-humid evergreen forests, Yunnan Province, China
In recent years, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability, productivity, and other ecosystem functions has been extensively studied by using theoretical approaches, experimental
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning : Basic Principles
Since the mid 1990s, ecologists have intensified their efforts to describe and quantify the effects that biodiversity can exert on the various processes within ecosystems. Both theoretical and
Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality
It is found that reductions in the abundance and presence of soil organisms results in the decline of multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity and nutrient cycling and retention, suggesting that below-ground biodiversity is a key resource for maintaining the functioning of ecosystems.
Effects of biodiversity and plant community composition on productivity in semiarid grasslands of Hulunbeir, Inner Mongolia, China
It is suggested that both biodiversity and community composition are important biotic factors in the functioning of ecosystems located in semiarid grasslands, and are better predictors of productivity than environmental factors, such as soil conditions.
Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment
It is found that greater numbers of plant species led to greater temporal stability of ecosystem annual aboveground plant production and the reliable, efficient and sustainable supply of some foods, fuels and ecosystem services can be enhanced by the use of biodiversity.
Both diversity and functional composition affect productivity and water use efficiency in experimental temperate grasslands
Many experiments have shown that biodiversity promotes ecosystem functioning and stability and that this relationship varies with resource availability. However, we still have a poor understanding of


Biodiversity and stability in grasslands
ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been
Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems
COMMUNITIES of species and their associated biological, chemical and physical processes, collectively known as ecosystems, drive the Earth's biogeochemical processes1,2. Currently most ecosystems are
Empirical Evidence that Declining Species Diversity May Alter the Performance of Terrestrial Ecosystems
The results provide the first evidence (obtained by a direct manipulation of diversity under controlled environmental conditions) that ecosystem processes may be affected by loss of diversity.
Tropical Soil Fertility Changes Under Monocultures and Successional Communities of Different Structure.
It proved possible to imitate the fertility-maintaining characteristics of successional vegetation by creating an equally species-rich community of different floristic composition, but the maintenance of fertility was not enhanced by further species enrichment.
Diversity and Stability of Ecological Communities: A Comment on the Role of Empiricism in Ecology
The data on diversity-stability relationships in plant communities indicate that the traditional verbal model is considerably more robust in application than recent "more rigorous" mathematical models.
Complexity, Diversity, and Stability: A Reconciliation of Theoretical and Empirical Results
Investigating the relationship between complexity and the lack of change in plant biomass (which the authors call biomass stability) following the removal of an herbivore finds that increased complexity can enhance biomass stability, even in model grazing systems.
Constraints and tradeoffs: toward a predictive theory of competition and succession
The results demonstrate that the inclusion of simple mechanisms of interspecific interactions, and of allocationbased tradeoffs, can allow models to predict the composition and successional dynamics of vegetation.
The Theory of Diversity-Stability Relationships in Ecology
  • D. Goodman
  • Environmental Science
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1975
There is no simple relationship between diversity and stability in ecological systems, and an alternate perspective for interpreting population stability is suggested.
The results suggest that spatiotemporal resource partitioning slows the rate of com- petitive displacement among co-occurring plant species.
Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities
The historical development of physiological plant ecology in North America and the post-war revival of physiological ecology are studied.