Production of soldiers and maintenance of soldier proportions by laboratory experimental groups ofReticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) andReticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)

@article{Haverty2005ProductionOS,
  title={Production of soldiers and maintenance of soldier proportions by laboratory experimental groups ofReticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) andReticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)},
  author={Michael I. Haverty and Robert West Howard},
  journal={Insectes Sociaux},
  year={2005},
  volume={28},
  pages={32-39}
}
SummaryThe effects of group size, time of year, and initial proportions of soldiers were explored in experimental groups ofReticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) andR. virginicus (Banks). Groups were held in the laboratory for 12 weeks. Small groups (500 to 1000 workers) produced a smaller percentage of soldiers than did larger groups (1500 to 2500 workers). The number of soldiers produced in a group is highly correlated with the total number of termites surviving. The average percentage produced for… 
Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Soldiers Regulate Juvenile Hormone Levels and Caste Differentiation in Workers
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the soldier caste regulates JH in workers of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, providing evidence that soldier caste proportions regulate JH levels and thereby caste differentiation in workers.
Physical contact between soldier and worker is essential in soldier self-regulation of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)
TLDR
By physical contacts, as the soldier-replacement experiment showed, workers could not individually recognize or “count” soldiers to maintain a set soldier proportion, and the essentiality of physical contact between workers and soldiers in soldier regulation was established.
The production of soldiers and the maintenance of caste proportions delay the growth of termite incipient colonies
TLDR
Investigation of incipient colonies of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) showed that an incipient colony maintains a stable soldier proportion regardless of the stress imposed, and the resources redirected into the replacement of soldiers reduced the total number of workers.
Numerical and biomass caste proportions in colonies of the termitesNasutitermes corniger andN. ephratae (Isoptera; Termitidae)
TLDR
Monogynous and polygynous nests have a statistically larger ratio of number of larvae: number of workers, and a higher number of presoldiers: soldiers than do single queen colonies, which suggest differences in growth rate related to single versus multiple queens.
Biological changes in the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) and its protozoa profile following starvation
TLDR
The effects of starvation on survival, body mass, movement, other behavior, and the symbiotic protozoan community in Reticulitermes flavipes were investigated in a 40-day assay and indicated that termites might obtain sufficient nutrients from cannibalizing other workers.
Termite colony dynamics as revealed by the sex- and caste-ratios of whole colonies ofIncisitermes schwarzi banks (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)
TLDR
There was an excess of males among the workers of colonies that had begun to form nymphs and alates, and among the soldiers of all colonies, and the unusual chromosomal mechanism of sex determination was discussed.
Stimulatory influence of the queen and king on soldier differentiation in the higher termitesNasutitermes lujae andCubitermes fungifaber
SummaryThe influence of the reproductives on soldier production was studied in two species of higher termites,Nasutitermes lujae (Nasutitermitinae) andCubitermes fungifaber (Termitinae). In both
Evolution of eusociality and the soldier caste in termites: a validation of the intrinsic benefit hypothesis
TLDR
It is confirmed that in termites soldiers are maintained for their intrinsic benefit to cost ratio, and fewer dispersing sexuals were produced in ‘soldier‐less’ colonies than in control colonies.
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